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1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
2 {{toc/}}
3 {{/box}}
4
5 A model consists of structural objects, **loads** and **finite elements**. This chapter summarizes the definition ways, the properties and the features of the structural objects.
6
7 Depending on the current **FEM-Design Module **(license you have), the available Object types are different. Although the structural objects are real 3 dimensional objects, they are 1D members and 2D planar elements (because of the finite element method) having sectional (thickness, profile etc.) and material properties. So, they can be defined as lines or regions. Some elements like point supports can be defined as points.
8
9 (% class="table-hover" style="width:1120px" %)
10 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:173px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Type**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:32px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Icon**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:128px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Modules where available**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:159px" %)(((
11 (% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Definition mode**
12 )))|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:134px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Position**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:113px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Material**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:132px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Profile**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:124px" %)(((
13 (% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Load bearing**
14 )))|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:124px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Default Short Command**
15 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Soil**>>Soil (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603814981-709.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602208253-331.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Region|(% style="width:134px" %)Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)SO
16 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Borehole**>>Borehole (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603822261-738.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602210083-549.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Point|(% style="width:134px" %)-|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)BH
17 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Pile**>>Pile (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584945390103-974.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584945396791-858.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Point/Line|(% style="width:134px" %)Vertical|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)PILE
18 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Isolated foundation**>>Isolated foundation (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603829044-457.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602212179-470.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Regular shape/Solid|(% style="width:134px" %)Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Concrete|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)FIS
19 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Wall foundation**>>Wall foundation (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603841098-596.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602219423-925.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Concrete|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)FWL
20 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Foundation slab**>>Foundation slab (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603848256-757.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602217074-327.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Region|(% style="width:134px" %)Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Concrete|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)FSL
21 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Beam**>>Beam (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603859591-112.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
22 [[image:1584602561989-469.png]]
23
24 [[image:1584602214397-138.png]] [[image:1584602626305-896.png]]
25 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
26 Horizontal
27
28 Arbitrary
29 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)BM
30 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Column**>>Column (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603866327-126.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
31 [[image:1584602559305-131.png]]
32
33 [[image:1584602222080-774.png]] [[image:1584602621130-909.png]]
34 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)(((
35 Point
36
37 Point/Line
38 )))|(% style="width:134px" %)Vertical|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)(((
39 (Support)
40
41 Arbitrary
42 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)CL
43 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
44 [[**Truss member**>>Truss member (Geometry)]]
45 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603873028-793.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602224568-738.png]] [[image:1584602618708-185.png]] |(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Axial|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)TR
46 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
47 [[**Intermediate section**>>Intermediate section (Geometry)]]
48 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603880617-711.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602226949-495.png]] [[image:1584602617236-838.png]] [[image:1584602544973-878.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Point|(% style="width:134px" %)-|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)ISEC
49 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Apex**>>Apex (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603889506-762.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602240547-944.png]] [[image:1584602623687-545.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
50 Vertical / Horizontal
51 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)Timber|(% style="width:132px" %)Rectangle|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)APEX
52 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Column corbel**>>Column corbel (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603896480-680.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602237211-483.png]] [[image:1584602614748-860.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Point|(% style="width:134px" %)Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)CCOR
53 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Wall corbel**>>Wall corbel (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603901949-632.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602233922-164.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)WCOR
54 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Plate**>>Plate (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603908879-545.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
55 [[image:1584602542466-682.png]]
56
57 [[image:1584602230254-792.png]]
58 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Region|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
59 Horizontal
60
61 Arbitrary
62 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Constant / variable thickness|(% style="width:124px" %)(((
63 Vertical
64
65 Axial
66 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)PL
67 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Wall**>>Wall (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603917622-954.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
68 [[image:1584602591139-209.png]]
69
70 [[image:1584603927995-543.png]] [[image:1584603950554-740.png]]
71
72 [[image:1584603937205-689.png]]
73 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)(((
74 Line
75
76 Region
77
78 Line
79 )))|(% style="width:134px" %)Vertical|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Constant/ variable thickness|(% style="width:124px" %)(((
80 (Support)
81
82 Planar
83
84 Arbitrary
85 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)WL
86 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
87 [[**Profiled panel**>>Profiled panel (Geometry)]]
88 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584605667677-283.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584604885106-242.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Line/Region|(% style="width:134px" %)Vertical/Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Constant|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)PPR / WPR
89 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Timber panel**>>Timber panel (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584605673548-322.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584604887313-772.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Line/Region|(% style="width:134px" %)Vertical/Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Timber|(% style="width:132px" %)Constant|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)PTM / WTM
90 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
91 [[**Point support**>>doc:.Point support (Geometry).WebHome]]
92
93 [[**Point support group**>>doc:.Point support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
94 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)(((
95 [[image:1584606240423-939.png]]
96
97 [[image:1584606251751-657.png]]
98 )))|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
99 [[image:1584602573981-946.png]]
100
101 [[image:1584604896073-561.png]] [[image:1584605783100-219.png]] [[image:1584605682460-575.png]] [[image:1584605763415-696.png]]
102 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Point|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
103 Vertical
104
105 Arbitrary
106 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)(((
107 SPT
108
109 SPG
110 )))
111 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
112 [[**Line support**>>doc:.Line support (Geometry).WebHome]]
113
114 [[**Line support group**>>doc:.Line support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
115 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)(((
116 [[image:1584606257981-662.png]]
117
118 [[image:1584606264758-198.png]]
119 )))|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
120 [[image:1584605826007-726.png]] [[image:1584605686131-287.png]] [[image:1584605756473-657.png]]
121
122 [[image:1584604903979-827.png]] [[image:1584605968077-824.png]]
123 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
124 Vertical
125
126 Arbitrary
127 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)(((
128 SLN
129
130 SLG
131 )))
132 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
133 [[**Surface support group**>>doc:.Surface support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
134 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584606305864-653.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
135 [[image:1584606015157-801.png]]
136
137 [[image:1584604916166-214.png]]
138 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Region|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
139 Vertical
140
141 Arbitrary
142 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)SSF
143 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
144 [[**Point-point connection**>>Point-point connection (Geometry)]]
145 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584606312864-571.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
146 [[image:1584605248316-672.png]]
147
148 [[image:1584604936217-115.png]] [[image:1584605980199-738.png]] [[image:1584605692944-870.png]] [[image:1584605747679-418.png]]
149 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
150 Horizontal
151
152 Arbitrary
153 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)CPT
154 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
155 [[**Line-line connection**>>Line-line connection (Geometry)]]
156 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584606317523-649.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
157 [[image:1584605244903-256.png]]
158
159 [[image:1584605273661-849.png]] [[image:1584605994404-800.png]] [[image:1584605723071-700.png]] [[image:1584605741598-931.png]]
160 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Lines|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
161 Horizontal
162
163 Arbitrary
164 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)CLN
165 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
166 [[**Fictitious bar**>>Fictitious bar (Geometry)]]
167 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584606322728-402.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
168 [[image:1584605251734-513.png]]
169
170 [[image:1584605270193-110.png]] [[image:1584605998857-529.png]]
171 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
172 Horizontal
173
174 Arbitrary
175 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)FICB
176 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Shell model**>>Shell model (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584606327473-318.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584605268223-162.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Regions|(% style="width:134px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:113px" %)Steel|(% style="width:132px" %)Constant/ variable web height|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)
177 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
178 [[**Fictitious shell**>>Fictitious shell (Geometry)]]
179 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584606332853-762.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584605266522-828.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Regions|(% style="width:134px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)FICS
180 |(% style="width:173px" %)**[[Post-tensioned cable (PTC)>>Post-tensioned cable (PTC) (Geometry)]]**|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584969371922-802.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584969377145-733.png]] [[image:1584969385282-949.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %) |(% style="width:134px" %) |(% style="width:113px" %) |(% style="width:132px" %) |(% style="width:124px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)BPTC
181
182 Table: Structural Objects and their main properties
183
184 The commands for defining structural objects can be started from the [[[[image:1584606358359-405.png]] **Tabmenu**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Basic concept.WebHome||anchor="HTabmenus"]]. Each command has a **Tool palette** with the customizable element properties (cross-sections, materials, stiffness values etc.) and the definition tools of the element geometry and position (direction).
185
186 = {{id name="Properties"/}}Properties =
187
188 //Tool palette// contains all customizable structural properties. The main properties can be set directly in the tool palette and all properties can be set in the dialog opens by clicking on the //Default settings //button. The settings dialog and fields keep the last set property values by element types (beams, columns, plates etc.)
189
190
191 [[image:1584606450182-329.png]]
192
193 Figure: Setting part of Tool palette
194
195 = {{id name="Cross sections"/}}Cross sections =
196
197 FEM-Design offers the possibility to add any cross-section type/shape (//Section//) to beams, columns and truss members.
198
199 |[[image:warning.png]]|To avoid design failures of concrete, steel and timber bars (section type and material do not fit), the program checks the section type - **material** compatibility while setting the properties. The program sends an error message when it finds incompatibility definition at closing the settings dialog. But, the so-called **General material** (defined by the user) can be added to each section types.
200
201 The //Section// tabpage of the settings dialog contains predefined cross-sections. Unique profiles and shapes can be define by their parameters (parametric shapes) in //New> Size //or with the [[image:1584606589609-328.png]] [[**FEM-Design Section Editor**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Section Editor.WebHome]]. The following table sums the available cross-section types.
202
203 |Type|**Description**|**Section library**|(((
204 **Compatible**
205
206 **material**
207 )))
208 |Standard steel profiles|Not editable, built-in steel profiles depending on the applied national code|[[image:1584606669592-168.png]]|Steel (or General)
209 |Often used concrete profiles|Not editable, built-in square, rectangular and circular concrete profiles|[[image:1584606677793-877.png]]|Concrete (or General)
210 |Often used timber profiles|Not editable, built-in square timber profiles|[[image:1584606686142-535.png]]|Timber (or General)
211 |Common parametric concrete shapes|Predefined concrete shapes to create required profiles by defining the shape parameters|[[image:1584606697986-714.png]]|Concrete (or General)
212 |Common parametric rolled steel shapes|Predefined rolled steel shapes to create required profiles by defining the shape parameters|[[image:1584606709941-786.png]]|Steel (or General)
213 |Common parametric cold-formed steel shapes|Predefined cold-formed steel shapes to create required profiles by defining the shape parameters|[[image:1584606717280-131.png]]|Steel (or General)
214 |Common parametric welded steel shapes|Predefined welded steel shapes to create required profiles by defining the shape parameters|[[image:1584606724891-641.png]]|Steel (or General)
215 |Common parametric timber shapes|Predefined timber shapes to create required profiles by defining the shape parameters|[[image:1584606733518-248.png]]|Timber (or General)
216
217 Table: Section types
218
219 Defining a new (e.g. parametric) section in the settings dialog, the program calculates automatically the parameters need for later analysis and design. Each bar element has a local coordinate-system which y and z axes define the plane of its cross-section.
220
221 (% style="width:1300px" %)
222 |Parameter|(% style="width:559px" %)**Meaning**|(% style="width:482px" %)**Example**
223 |A|(% style="width:559px" %)Area|(% rowspan="28" style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle; width:482px" %)[[image:1584606874911-332.png]]
224 |P|(% style="width:559px" %)Perimeter
225 |A/P|(% style="width:559px" %)Area/Perimeter
226 |Y,,g,,, Z,,g,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Center of gravity
227 |Y,,s,,, Z,,s,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Shear center position
228 |I,,y,,, I,,z,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Moment of inertia
229 |W,,y,,, W,,z,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Section modulus
230 |e,,z max,,, e,,y max,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Maximum distance of extreme fiber
231 |e,,z min,,, e,,y min,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Minimum distance of extreme fiber
232 |i,,y,,, i,,z,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Radius of inertia
233 |S,,y,,, S,,z,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Maximum statical moment
234 |I,,t,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Torsion moment of inertia
235 |W,,t,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Torsion section modulus
236 |I,,gamma,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Warping parameter
237 |I,,yz,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Centroidal product of inertia
238 |z ,,omega,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Wagner warping parameter
239 |alpha1, alpha2|(% style="width:559px" %)Angle of principal direction
240 |I,,1,,, I,,2,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Principal moment of inertia
241 |W,,1 min,,, W,,2 min,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Principal minimum section modulus
242 |W,,1 max,,, W,,2 max,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Principal maximum section modulus
243 |e,,2 max,,, e,,1 max,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Maximum distance of extreme fiber
244 |e,,2 min,,, e,,1 min,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Minimum distance of extreme fiber
245 |i,,1,,, i,,2,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Radius of principal inertia
246 |S,,1,,, S,,2,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Principal maximum statical moment
247 |S,,o1,,, S,,o2,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Principal statical moment of half area
248 |c,,1,,, c,,2,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Plastic/elastic moment capacity
249 |Rho,,1,,, Rho,,2,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Principal shear factor
250 |z,,2,,, z,,1,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Wagner parameter
251
252 Table: Sectional characteristics
253
254 A cross-section is stored in the following tree structure: //group// > //type// > //size//. New library items can be defined or previous ones can be edited (renamed, modified or deleted) by the following settings options.
255
256
257 (% style="text-align:center" %)
258 [[image:1584607167580-291.png]]
259
260 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
261 Figure: Section library structure
262
263 Cross-sections used in the project and defined as parametric profiles are grouped in //Used sections// library, but they are available only in the current project.
264
265 (% style="text-align:center" %)
266 [[image:1584607191209-527.png]]
267
268 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
269 Figure: “Used sections” library
270
271 |[[image:warning.png]]|**Y**ou can Import and Export the Section Library to share the content of the Library.
272
273 == **Composite sections** ==
274
275 Composite sections can be set for beams, columns and piles.
276
277 The available composite section types:
278
279 [[image:1584607343173-225.png]] [[image:1584607351751-959.png]] [[image:1584607361511-319.png]] [[image:1584607367112-925.png]] [[image:1584607372070-449.png]] [[image:1584607377559-346.png]] [[image:1584607386386-143.png]] [[image:1584607393225-359.png]]
280
281 Click //Default settings/Section tab/Composite/New// to open the settings of //Composite sections//.
282
283 [[image:1584607437480-666.png]]
284
285
286 |[[image:warning.png]]|For the time being only above listed composite sections can be selected, there is no choice to create alternative section.
287
288 = {{id name="Materials"/}}Materials =
289
290 The //Material// tabpage of the settings dialog contains predefined materials according to the current national standard.
291
292 A model may include mixture of elements with different materials, and analysis can be done for the complete model, but design can be done for elements having proper materials.
293
294 (% style="width:448px" %)
295 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:258px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Material**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:187px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Design**
296 |(% style="width:258px" %)[[Concrete>>Concrete (Material)]]|(% style="width:187px" %)[[**RC design**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.RC Design.WebHome]]
297 |(% style="width:258px" %)[[Steel>>Steel (Material)]]|(% style="width:187px" %)[[**Steel design**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Steel Design.WebHome]]
298 |(% style="width:258px" %)[[Timber>>Timber (Material)]]|(% style="width:187px" %)[[**Timber design**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Timber Design.WebHome]]
299 |(% style="width:258px" %)General|(% style="width:187px" %)- (only for [[analysis>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Analysis.WebHome]])
300 |(% style="width:258px" %)[[Bar steel (Reinforcement)>>Bar steel (Reinforcement) (Material)]]|(% style="width:187px" %)[[**RC design**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.RC Design.WebHome]]
301
302 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
303 Table: Available and design materials
304
305 //Material library// stores the available materials by material type groups. Materials used in the project are grouped in //Used materials// library, but they are available only in the current project.
306
307 (% style="text-align:center" %)
308 [[image:1584607519068-883.png]]
309
310 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
311 Figure: Material library
312
313 Above the standard materials, user can define concrete, steel, timber and general materials. The new materials are also stored in the //Material library //in the proper material type group. To define a new (e.g. concrete) material, select the required material group name (e.g. //Concrete//), click //New// and set the required material properties starting with the material name first.
314
315 (% style="text-align:center" %)
316 [[image:1584607546988-851.png]]
317
318 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
319 Figure: Material types
320
321
322 The properties of the current (selected in the list) material can be edited with the //Modify// tool.
323
324 Customized material database can be shared between projects and users with the //Export// and //Import// tools. Click //Export// to save all materials of the current project in a named database file (//.fdlmat//). To load an exported material database to a project, just apply //Import// and browse for it.
325
326
327 [[image:1584608176655-895.png]]
328 Figure: Material export/import
329
330 |(% style="width:97px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1393px" %)Just one click on **Quantity estimation**// //(//Tools// menu), and a fast process collects all structural elements of the current project with their applied materials, material qualities, identifiers, main geometric parameters (e.g. profiles), quantities etc.
331
332 |(% style="width:113px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1377px" %)Modifying the national standard for a model the program shows a dialog where you can convert the material property of the structural elements and the reinforcing steel, so the materials will automatically change after switching the code.
333
334 [[image:1584608191237-124.png]]
335
336 Figure: Material conversion dialog
337
338 = {{id name="Information Pop-up"/}}Information Pop-up =
339
340 Moving the cursor over a structural object, an **//Information pop-up//** appears with its main properties. For example, the pop-up displays the ID, the material, the thickness, the alignment and orthotropic features for //Plates//.
341
342 [[image:1584613969028-552.png]]
343
344 Figure: Information pop-up example
345
346 |(% style="width:113px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1377px" %)Information pop-up appears only for elements on visible layers and if there is not running command.
347
348 |(% style="width:97px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1393px" %)Pop-up is enabled by default. To unable it, uncheck the //Display information pop-up// at //Settings > All > Environment > General >View//.
349
350 = {{id name="“Properties” Tool"/}}“Properties” Tool =
351
352 [[image:1584614046306-822.png]] With the //Properties// tool of a tool palette, the properties of a selected object or objects can be inquired and edited in dialog format (similar to //Default settings//).
353
354 [[image:1584614094257-717.png]]
355
356 Figure: Modifying object properties (e.g. cross-section of a selected beam)
357
358 = {{id name="Modify properties by “Quick menu”"/}}Modify properties by “Quick menu” =
359
360 Alternative way of modifying object properties is to select any object by right click, or more objects of the same type by box, then click //“Properties //[[image:1584968999220-381.png]] //”// in the Quick menu to check/modify its/their properties. This function works for structural objects, loads or design elements.
361
362 [[image:1584614131051-278.png]]
363
364 = {{id name="“Pick properties” and “Copy properties”"/}}“Pick properties” and “Copy properties” =
365
366 With these functions the properties of an object can be copied to others of the same type, or picked to use as default. Both can be found in the //Tools// menu and in the toolbar as well.
367
368 [[image:1584614148289-653.png]]
369
370 To copy properties with the //Copy properties// ([[image:1584614182261-577.png]] ) function, first select the source object, then one or more objects to which the properties are to be applied.
371
372 [[image:1584614161427-800.png]]
373
374 //Pick properties// ([[image:1584614198743-481.png]] ), when used on an object (of the same type as in the active editing dialogue) will update the default settings for its type.
375
376 |(% style="width:113px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1377px" %)(((
377 //Pick properties// can only be used when //Define// is selected in an editing window, otherwise it is disabled.
378
379 [[image:1584614287014-961.png]]
380 )))
381
382 //Copy //and //Pick properties// work according to the following rules:
383
384 * Generally, the properties defined by the property dialogue will be picked or copied.
385 * They are only available in the //3D Structure //and //Plate// modules.
386 * ID will not be copied.
387 * Load case of loads will not be copied.
388 * Varying shell thickness and surface load value will not be copied.
389
390 = {{id name="Numbering"/}}Numbering =
391
392 Structural elements with an ‘Identifier (. position number)’ will have an automatically or manually assigned position number.
393
394 [[image:1584614344163-874.png]]
395
396 The position number will be //0// upon creating the object and will be automatically set to another value in the following cases:
397
398 * before creating a list
399 * using the //Find //tool
400 * before calculation
401
402 User can manually set position numbers by //Tools/Numbering…// [[image:1584614355603-251.png]] // //tool.
403
404 [[image:1584614361983-249.png]]
405
406 Use [[image:1584614366715-716.png]] for //Manual position numbering//
407
408 1. type required position number into the //Position no. //textbox
409 1. select option for handling position number conflicts
410 1. select object(s) to set position number for
411
412 [[image:1584614375936-666.png]]
413
414 |(% style="width:113px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1377px" %)(((
415 In case more objects are selected, the first one gets the position number typed by the user and for the next ones it is increased automatically.
416 )))
417
418 To set position number of **component objects**, like edge connections, corbels, post-tensioned cables, punching regions, the //Select component (…)  //auxiliary option has to be checked.
419
420 Objects with manually set position number can be **highlighted** by checking the last option of the tool window.
421
422 [[image:1584614416851-247.png]]
423
424 The position number can be reset to zero by choosing //Reset //[[image:1584614431314-981.png]] // //option then selecting one or more objects.
425
426 //Automatic numbering// [[image:1584614436757-234.png]] sets position number automatically for all objects in the database except the ones with manually set position number.
427
428 The option to //Lock numbering// can be accessed by clicking its icon [[image:1584614443611-700.png]] in the same //Tool// window.
429
430 [[image:1584614453969-412.png]]
431
432 When the numbering of a selected object type is locked, the position number of individual elements will remain the same. The maximum position number is saved for all IDs, so position numbers less than that will not be used in the future, even if some items are deleted.
433
434 This means all the element types with their numbering locked will retain their original ID, even after refreshing the numbering (either manually, or automatically).
435
436 [[image:1584614475497-574.png]]
437
438 = {{id name="Display Settings of Structural Elements"/}}Display Settings of Structural Elements =
439
440 The display properties of the structural elements can be set at the //Settings > All… > Display//.
441
442 The available options depend on the current FEM-Design module.
443
444 [[image:1584614523032-825.png]]
445
446 Figure: Settings options affect on the appearance of the structural elements
447
448 * **Drawing elements**
449 With the //Show end points of line// option you can show (or hide) the insertion points of planar structural objects, their holes and bar objects (beams, columns etc.). These points are visible in all (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**display modes**(%%), but the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Wireframe**(%%) mode without (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**displaying the elements’ thickness**(%%) gives the clearest appearance of them.
450 [[image:1584615910533-659.png]]
451 Figure: Insertion points displayed in Wireframe mode(((
452 |(% style="width:97px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1393px" %)(((
453 By showing the insertion points you can also detect the unnecessary (for example accidentally) defined points, which may cause “too refined” finite element mesh in planar structural elements. The unnecessary points can be deleted with editing tools (//Edit// menu) which can be applied for region elements (such as plate, wall regions etc.). For example, stretch the unnecessary points outside the host region, and then cut the stretched region part(s) with the Split tool of the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Modify region**(%%) (//Edit// menu) or with the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Hole tool**(%%) of the structural planar object.
454
455 [[image:1584615989630-259.png]]
456 Figure: Unnecessary definition points detected visually
457 )))
458
459 With the //Fill-up with color// option the planar objects (plate, wall, drawing regions) can be displayed with their reference plane as colored surface or with their contour lines only. Applying the fill colors is useful to display holes/openings clearly. The filling color of an element is the default color of the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Object layer**(%%) includes the element. It can modified at the layer settings by element types (Plate, Wall etc.) or with the //Color// option of the //Change properties// tool (//Edit > Properties//) by elements (independently from their types).
460 \\[[image:1584616071151-864.png]]
461 \\Figure: Planar objects displayed with their colored surface or without it in Wireframe mode
462
463 )))
464 * **Structure and load labels**
465 Information of structural elements (such as ID, position number, material properties, section names etc.) and load (such as intensity, Comment etc.) can be displayed on the screen by element types in (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Wireframe display mode**(%%).
466 [[image:1584616104727-156.png]]
467 Figure: Info labels displayed on screen by element types
468
469 * **Storey**
470 In this section the User can select how the objects can be displayed within the storey.
471
472 Every object is displayed which is in the plane of the storey or if it is crossing the range of the storey above or below according to the setting.
473
474 To display one of the defined storeys click on the  [[image:1584616155897-470.png]] icon in the //Toolbar//, then choose the storey you wish to be displayed:
475
476 [[image:1584616168168-960.png]]
477
478 The pictures below show the whole structure and how its displayed parts depend on the selected option in S//ettings/Display/Storey dialog//.
479
480 [[image:1584616182777-407.png]] [[image:1584616187594-921.png]]
481
482 [[image:1584616194169-291.png]] [[image:1584616199926-540.png]]
483
484
485 * **Display local system**
486 The (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**local co-ordinate system**(%%) of the structural elements can be displayed with the //Display local system// option by element types. The size of the local system symbol can be set at the //Size// option. The color of the local system axes can be set at //Local systems// setting. The default colors are: green for the local x’ axis, red for the local y’ axis and blue for the local z’ axis.
487 [[image:1584616227707-955.png]]
488 Figure: Local co-ordinate system displayed on screen by element types
489
490 * **Special display settings of walls**
491 With the //Display wall base line// option (//3D Structure// and //Predesign// modules only) the bottom end of the walls can be displayed as a hatched surface.
492 By inactivating the //Display wall height// option (//Plate// module only) only the reference support line (as hatched surface) can be displayed without showing the height-extension that is out from the plates’ calculation 2D plane.
493 \\[[image:1584616265108-734.png]]
494 Figure: Special display options of walls
495
496 * **Special display settings of bar elements**
497 The //Display section shape// option shows the applied section of the bar elements as a colored symbol in the middle of the bar reference lines. The size (//Scale//), the filling (//Fill//) and contour (//Border//) colors are customizable. Although, section shape symbols are visible in most of the different display modes, their “best” display mode is the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Wireframe**(%%) mode without (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**displaying the elements’ thickness**(%%).
498 \\The //Display connections// option shows the end connection property (see (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Beam**(%%), (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Column**(%%) or (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Fictitious bar connection**(%%) settings) of the bar elements. Only the free end motion components can be displayed as arrows, where a simple arrow shows a motion component by its direction and a double-headed arrow shows the axis direction of a rotation component. The fix (rigid) end connection components are never displayed. The color of an end motion component equals with the color of the proper axis of the host bar element’s local system (see before, (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Display local system**(%%)). The size of the symbols can be set at the //Size// option.
499 [[image:1584622743015-422.png]]
500 Figure: Special display options of bar elements
501
502 * **Layer, color and pen width**
503 All elements are placed (and grouped) on (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Object layers**(%%) according to their type. So, for example, columns are on the “Columns” layer and the walls are on the “Walls” layer. The default color and pen width of elements’ contours/reference lines are represented by their host layers. For example, by default, walls are red, if the color of the “Walls” layer is also red.
504 [[image:1584622795988-176.png]]
505 Figure: Layer-system of structural objects
506
507 |(% style="width:97px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1393px" %)(((
508 The default color of an object can be modified independently from their types with the //Color// option of the //Change properties// tool (//Edit > Properties//).
509 )))
510
511 = {{id name="Color schema"/}}Color schema =
512
513 This feature lets the users to navigate a model easier, by allowing them to fully customize element colors. These options can be accessed through the //Tools// à //Colors// menu command, or by clicking on their icon ([[image:1584622927900-699.png]] ) in the toolbar.
514
515 //Mode// determines the attribute on which the color coding is based. When //None// is selected, the default colors for object types will be used.
516
517 [[image:1584622957109-755.png]]
518
519 [[image:1584623007739-957.png]]
520
521 For each object type, the following attributes are available:
522
523 (% style="width:443px" %)
524 |(% style="width:206px" %)[[Beam>>doc:.Beam (Geometry).WebHome]], [[column >>doc:.Column (Geometry).WebHome]]and [[truss>>doc:.Truss member (Geometry).WebHome]]|(% style="width:234px" %)ID, Material, Cross-section
525 |(% style="width:206px" %)[[Plane plate>>doc:.Plate (Geometry).WebHome]] and [[wall>>doc:.Wall (Geometry).WebHome]]|(% style="width:234px" %)ID, Material, Thickness
526 |(% style="width:206px" %)[[Profiled plate and wall>>doc:.Profiled panel (Geometry).WebHome]]|(% style="width:234px" %)ID, Material, Cross-section
527 |(% style="width:206px" %)[[Timber panel>>doc:.Timber panel (Geometry).WebHome]]|(% style="width:234px" %)ID, Material
528 |(% style="width:206px" %)Edge connection|(% style="width:234px" %)ID, Rigidity type
529
530 The //Manage// button can be used to save a specified color coding system. These can be selected afterwards from the drop-down list to the left from the //Manage// button. Schema color is saved only for a given project.
531
532 [[image:1584623053547-462.png]]
533
534 Clicking the //Apply// button will apply the color code to the model. Enabling the //Auto apply// checkbox will apply any changes automatically.
535
536 When a custom color scheme is in use, a legend window will be displayed. With the //Position// button, the placement of this window can be specified; it can even be hidden. By default, the legend is displayed in the bottom left corner of the screen.
537 [[image:1584623072972-909.png]]
538
539 Colors, borders, and their line types (with thickness) can be modified by clicking on the //Edit palette// button. In the dialog box, all parameters can be set for every value of the specified attribute (//ID//, //Material// or //Thickness//). It is possible to save these settings separately to be used in another color scheme.
540
541 [[image:1584623091638-620.png]]
542
543 The Settings button will allow you to save your color scheme to a file (//*.cpal//) or as default, or load another schema.
544
545 |(% style="width:112px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1378px" %)When a color scheme is saved, only the colors and their order will be stored, values need to be specified each time.
546
547 |(% style="width:93px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1397px" %)//Pen// (line weight) can use pixels as well as millimeters. A positive number means millimeters, while a negative one will give the line width in pixels. A line weight given in millimeters will remain the same in the documentation. When pen size is given in pixels, the line weight will remain the same on-screen, regardless of zoom level.
548
549 = {{id name="Geometry"/}}Geometry =
550
551 The definition modes and the available shapes of structural elements’ reference line or reference plane depend on:
552
553 * The structural type: 1D Member or Planar Object, and
554 * The current FEM-Design module.
555
556 The Tool palette of a structural element contains only the available modes. The next table summarizes the geometry possibilities by structural elements.
557
558 |**Type**|**Icon**|**Modules where available**|(((
559 **Definition**
560
561 **mode**
562 )))|**Geometry**
563 |[[**Soil**>>doc:.Soil (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584623251342-300.png]]|[[image:1584623272867-980.png]]|Reference region|(((
564 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
565
566 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
567
568 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
569
570 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
571
572 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
573 )))
574 |[[**Borehole**>>doc:.Borehole (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584623478078-802.png]]|[[image:1584623277989-659.png]]|Reference point|- (Insertion point)
575 |**[[Pile>>doc:.Pile (Geometry).WebHome]]**|[[image:1584948457531-282.png]]|[[image:1584948462484-973.png]]|Reference line|(((
576 [[[[image:1584624537501-671.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pile by point** (Geometry)>>Line by insertion point (Geometry)]]
577
578 [[[[image:1584697346323-820.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Vertical line **(Geometry)>>Vertical line (Geometry)]]
579
580 [[[[image:1584697357281-495.png]]**// //Select point **(% class="wikiinternallink" %)(Geometry)>>Select point (Geometry)]]
581
582 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
583
584 [[image:1584948862617-289.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Array Rectangular** (Geometry)
585
586 [[image:1584948883086-438.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Array Polar** (Geometry)
587 )))
588 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)[[**Isolated foundation**>>doc:.Isolated foundation (Geometry).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)[[image:1584624069104-381.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)[[image:1584623280887-312.png]]|Regular shape|(((
589 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
590
591 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
592
593 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
594
595 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
596
597 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
598 )))
599 |Reference solid|[[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing solid **(Geometry)>>Pick existing solid (Geometry)]]
600 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="1" %)[[**Wall foundation**>>doc:.Wall foundation (Geometry).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="1" %)[[image:1584624261505-269.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="1" %)[[image:1584623287446-553.png]]|Line|(((
601 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
602
603 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
604
605 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
606
607 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
608
609 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
610 )))
611 |[[**Foundation slab**>>doc:.Foundation slab (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584624421586-550.png]]|[[image:1584623297416-834.png]]|Region|(((
612 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
613
614 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
615
616 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
617
618 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
619
620 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
621 )))
622 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)(((
623 [[**Column**>>doc:.Column (Geometry).WebHome]]
624 )))|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)[[image:1584624441837-681.png]]|[[image:1584624450492-324.png]]|Reference point|- (Insertion point)
625 |[[image:1584623303315-573.png]] [[image:1584624105479-200.png]]|Reference line|(((
626 [[[[image:1584624537501-671.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Line by insertion point** (Geometry)>>Line by insertion point (Geometry)]]
627
628 [[[[image:1584697346323-820.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Vertical line **(Geometry)>>Vertical line (Geometry)]]
629
630 [[[[image:1584697351680-171.png]]**// //(% class="wikiinternallink" %)Select axes (%%)**(% class="wikiinternallink" %)(Geometry)>>Select axes (Geometry)]]
631
632 [[[[image:1584697357281-495.png]]**// //Select point **(% class="wikiinternallink" %)(Geometry)>>Select point (Geometry)]]
633
634 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
635 )))
636 |(((
637 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Truss member**>>doc:.Truss member (Geometry).WebHome]]
638 )))|[[image:1584624564721-232.png]]|(((
639 [[image:1584623342867-600.png]] [[image:1584624099643-656.png]]
640 )))|Reference line|(((
641 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
642
643 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
644 )))
645 |(((
646 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Intermediate section**>>doc:.Intermediate section (Geometry).WebHome]]
647
648
649 )))|[[image:1584624582798-190.png]]|[[image:1584623345607-668.png]] [[image:1584624093581-629.png]] [[image:1584624141904-781.png]]|Reference point|- (Insertion point)
650 |(((
651 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Apex**>>doc:.Apex (Geometry).WebHome]]
652
653
654 )))|[[image:1584624598909-360.png]]|[[image:1584623347714-840.png]] [[image:1584624118381-851.png]]|Reference beams|-
655 |[[**Column corbel**>>doc:.Column corbel (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584626086733-429.png]]|[[image:1584623350740-283.png]] [[image:1584624114784-116.png]]|Reference point on a column|- (Insertion point)
656 |[[**Wall corbel**>>doc:.Wall corbel (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584626089193-100.png]]|[[image:1584623353009-633.png]]|Reference line|(((
657 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
658
659 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
660
661 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
662
663 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
664
665 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
666 )))
667 |(((
668 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Plate**>>doc:.Plate (Geometry).WebHome]]
669 )))|[[image:1584626108393-467.png]]|[[image:1584624129994-181.png]] [[image:1584623356108-911.png]]|Reference region|(((
670 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
671
672 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
673
674 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
675
676 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
677
678 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
679 )))
680 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="3" %)(((
681 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Wall**>>doc:.Wall (Geometry).WebHome]]
682 )))|(% colspan="1" rowspan="3" %)[[image:1584626155224-753.png]]|[[image:1584624132656-255.png]]|Reference line|(((
683 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
684
685 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
686
687 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
688
689 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
690
691 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
692 )))
693 |[[image:1584626498399-746.png]] [[image:1584626666857-191.png]]|Reference region|(((
694 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
695
696 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
697
698 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
699
700 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
701
702 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
703 )))
704 |[[image:1584623360146-509.png]]|Reference region|(((
705 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
706
707 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
708
709 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
710
711 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
712
713 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
714 )))
715 |(((
716 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Profiled plate**>>doc:.Profiled panel (Geometry).WebHome]]
717 )))|[[image:1584626165079-213.png]]|[[image:1584623321986-874.png]]|Reference region|(((
718 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
719
720 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
721
722 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
723
724 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
725
726 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
727 )))
728 |(% class="wikiinternallink" %)[[**Profiled wall**>>doc:.Profiled panel (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584626172354-822.png]]|[[image:1584623321986-874.png]]|Reference region|(((
729 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
730
731 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
732
733 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
734
735 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
736
737 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
738 )))
739 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)(((
740 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Timber panel**>>doc:.Timber panel (Geometry).WebHome]]
741 )))|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)[[image:1584626179198-475.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)(((
742 [[image:1584626364745-447.png]]
743
744
745 )))|Reference region|(((
746 [[image:1584626990183-361.png]]** Use as plate:**
747
748 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
749
750 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
751
752 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
753
754 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
755
756 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
757 )))
758 |Reference region|(((
759 [[image:1584626980930-610.png]]** Use as wall:**
760
761 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
762
763 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
764
765 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
766
767 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
768
769 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
770 )))
771 |(((
772 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Point support**>>doc:.Point support (Geometry).WebHome]]
773
774 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Point support group**>>doc:.Point support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
775 )))|[[image:1584626189643-296.png]] [[image:1584626198843-858.png]]|[[image:1584624153750-998.png]] [[image:1584626506933-120.png]] [[image:1584626542318-723.png]] [[image:1584626471244-390.png]] [[image:1584626361817-129.png]]|Reference point|- (Insertion point)
776 |(((
777 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Line support**>>doc:.Line support (Geometry).WebHome]]
778
779 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Line support group**>>doc:.Line support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
780 )))|[[image:1584626246461-851.png]] [[image:1584626255708-112.png]]|(((
781 [[image:1584624156911-243.png]] [[image:1584626509582-695.png]] [[image:1584626542318-723.png]] [[image:1584626465050-475.png]] [[image:1584626360759-306.png]]
782 )))|Reference line|(((
783 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
784
785 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
786
787 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
788
789 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
790
791 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
792 )))
793 |(((
794 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Surface support**>>doc:.Surface support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
795 )))|[[image:1584627036758-199.png]]|[[image:1584624162949-282.png]] [[image:1584626357599-694.png]] |Reference region|(((
796 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
797
798 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
799
800 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
801
802 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
803
804 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
805 )))
806 |(((
807 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Point-point connection**>>doc:.Point-point connection (Geometry).WebHome]]
808 )))|[[image:1584626854928-822.png]]|[[image:1584624162949-282.png]] [[image:1584626525892-294.png]] [[image:1584626542318-723.png]] [[image:1584626404958-277.png]] [[image:1584626347070-675.png]]|Reference points|- (Insertion points)
809 |(((
810 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Line-line connection**>>doc:.Line-line connection (Geometry).WebHome]]
811 )))|[[image:1584626849564-903.png]]|[[image:1584624166085-413.png]] [[image:1584626528620-972.png]] [[image:1584626537838-910.png]] [[image:1584626404958-277.png]] [[image:1584626348752-205.png]]|Reference lines|(((
812 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
813
814 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
815
816 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
817
818 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
819
820 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
821 )))
822 |(((
823 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Fictitious bar**>>doc:.Fictitious bar (Geometry).WebHome]]
824 )))|[[image:1584626835276-942.png]]|[[image:1584624169288-537.png]] [[image:1584626398213-720.png]] [[image:1584626338887-991.png]]|Reference line|(((
825 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
826
827 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
828
829 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
830
831 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
832
833 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
834 )))
835 |(((
836 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Cover**>>Cover (Geometry)]]
837
838 //- //Wall type
839 )))|[[image:1584626276528-532.png]] [[image:1584626285200-177.png]]|[[image:1584626393910-272.png]] [[image:1584626336747-529.png]]|Reference line|(((
840 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
841
842 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
843
844 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
845
846 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
847
848 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
849 )))
850 |(((
851 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Cover**>>doc:.Cover (Geometry).WebHome]]
852
853 - Slab or roof type
854 )))| |[[image:1584626390126-424.png]] [[image:1584626334467-202.png]]|Reference region|(((
855 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
856
857 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
858
859 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
860
861 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
862
863 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
864 )))
865 |(((
866 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Building cover**>>doc:.Cover (Geometry).WebHome||anchor="HBuildingcover"]]
867 )))|[[image:1584624184377-240.png]]|[[image:1584626388360-891.png]] [[image:1584626332274-282.png]]|Reference plane shape|-
868
869 Table: Structural Objects and their geometry definition
870
871 = {{id name="Hole"/}}Hole =
872
873 [[image:1584706736189-590.png]] Holes, openings and cuttings can be added to reference regions (Plate, Wall and Surface support) with the //Hole// tool. The following geometries can be used for holes:
874
875 The steps of a hole definition:
876
877 1. Select the host region with mouse-clicking. Clicking a region places the **//UCS//** into the region plane, so giving hole coordinates needs only X and Y values from the UCS origin.
878 1. Define the geometry of the hole with one of the following geometry modes:
879 [[[[image:1584706750496-863.png]] >>doc:.Rectangular (Geometry).WebHome]]**//[[Rectangular>>doc:.Rectangular (Geometry).WebHome]]//**
880 [[[[image:1584706782578-809.png]] >>doc:.Circular (Geometry).WebHome]]**//[[Circular>>doc:.Circular (Geometry).WebHome]]//**
881 [[[[image:1584706787849-490.png]] >>doc:.Polygonal (Geometry).WebHome]]**//[[Polygonal>>doc:.Polygonal (Geometry).WebHome]]//**
882 [[[[image:1584706793511-935.png]] >>doc:.Pick lines (Geometry).WebHome]]**//[[Pick lines>>doc:.Pick lines (Geometry).WebHome]]//**
883
884 [[image:1584706811302-975.png]]
885
886 Figure: Examples for holes
887
888
889 [[image:1584706861606-261.png]]
890
891 Figure: Hole tool can be used to edit region geometries as cuttings
892
893 Holes can be easily copy inside a region or among regions with same reference plane position with the (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Copy**(%%)**// command //**(//Edit// menu). It is recommended to display only the regions’ reference plane (inactive (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Display thickness**(%%) option) to easily select the contour of the hole you would like to copy. To set the distances/new positions, the (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**UCS**(%%) has to be in the plane of the host region(s).
894
895
896 [[image:1584706885561-898.png]]
897
898 Figure: Copying holes in a Wall
899
900 = {{id name="Direction"/}}Direction =
901
902 Numerous objects need direction settings for their positioning (bar elements) or their components definition (supports). The next table summarizes the direction possibilities by structural elements.
903
904 |**Type**|**Icon**|**Modules where available**|**Direction for**|**Direction Modes**
905 |[[**Soil**>>doc:.Soil (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711285392-617.png]]|[[image:1584712006264-111.png]]|-|-
906 |[[**Borehole**>>doc:.Borehole (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711290870-489.png]]|[[image:1584712008949-787.png]]|-|-
907 |[[**Isolated foundation**>>doc:.Isolated foundation (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711296674-615.png]]|[[image:1584712010771-322.png]]|Solid position:
908 Direction of local x’ axis|(((
909 [[[[image:1584714999028-689.png]]** Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>Predefined direction (Geometry)]]
910
911 [[[[image:1584715029847-320.png]]**// //Local system** (Geometry)>>Local system (Geometry)]]
912 )))
913 |[[**Wall foundation**>>doc:.Wall foundation (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711303553-127.png]]|[[image:1584712012851-458.png]]|-|-
914 |[[**Foundation slab**>>doc:.Foundation slab (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711309010-316.png]]|[[image:1584712015079-616.png]]|-|-
915 |[[**Beam**>>doc:.Beam (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711313833-385.png]]|[[image:1584714697029-359.png]] [[image:1584712026097-564.png]]|(((
916 Cross-section position:
917
918 Direction of local y’ axis
919 )))|(((
920 [[[[image:1584715043353-386.png]] **Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
921
922 [[[[image:1584715057079-206.png]] **Parallel with line** (Geometry)>>Parallel with line (Geometry)]]
923
924 [[[[image:1584715075140-697.png]] **Perpendicular to plane** (Geometry)>>Perpendicular to plane (Geometry)]]
925 )))
926 |[[**Column**>>doc:.Column (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711323366-603.png]]|[[image:1584714735464-665.png]] [[image:1584714679142-162.png]] [[image:1584712028654-886.png]]|(((
927 Cross-section position:
928
929 Direction of local y’ axis
930 )))|(((
931 [[[[image:1584715043353-386.png]] **Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
932
933 [[[[image:1584715057079-206.png]] **Parallel with line** (Geometry)>>Parallel with line (Geometry)]]
934
935 [[[[image:1584715075140-697.png]] **Perpendicular to plane** (Geometry)>>Perpendicular to plane (Geometry)]]
936 )))
937 |[[**Truss member**>>doc:.Truss member (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711328905-765.png]]|[[image:1584714663160-148.png]] [[image:1584712068391-862.png]]|(((
938 Cross-section position:
939
940 Direction of local y’ axis
941 )))|(((
942 [[[[image:1584715043353-386.png]] **Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
943
944 [[[[image:1584715057079-206.png]] **Parallel with line** (Geometry)>>Parallel with line (Geometry)]]
945
946 [[[[image:1584715075140-697.png]] **Perpendicular to plane** (Geometry)>>Perpendicular to plane (Geometry)]]
947 )))
948 |[[**Column corbel**>>doc:.Column corbel (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711410693-123.png]]|[[image:1584712077681-687.png]]|(((
949 Horizontal axis position:
950
951 Angle between the horizontal axis of the corbel and the local y’ axis of the column
952 )))|(((
953 [[image:1584715200772-583.png]]
954
955 **Alpha[°]**
956 )))
957 |[[**Point support**>>doc:.Point support (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711402142-454.png]]|[[image:1584714743178-860.png]]|Rotation direction|[[[[image:1584715043353-386.png]] **Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
958 | | |[[image:1584714815881-354.png]] [[image:1584714845551-979.png]]|Motion component direction|[[[[image:1584715057079-206.png]] **Parallel with line** (Geometry)>>Parallel with line (Geometry)]]
959 | | |[[image:1584712176791-802.png]] [[image:1584712081677-423.png]]|Component direction|[[[[image:1584715075140-697.png]] **Perpendicular to plane** (Geometry)>>Perpendicular to plane (Geometry)]]
960 |[[**Point support group**>>doc:.Point support group (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711419164-677.png]]|[[image:1584714754985-386.png]] [[image:1584714820244-759.png]] [[image:1584714847906-752.png]]|Component direction|- (**Predefined direction**)
961 | | |(((
962 [[image:1584712171748-874.png]] [[image:1584712085634-334.png]]
963 )))|(((
964 Component direction
965
966 (reference system)
967 )))|(((
968 [[[[image:1584714999028-689.png]]** Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
969
970 [[[[image:1584715029847-320.png]]**// //Local system** (Geometry)>>Local system (Geometry)]]
971 )))
972 |[[**Line support**>>doc:.Line support (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711426719-997.png]]|[[image:1584714760642-469.png]]|Rotation direction|[[[[image:1584715043353-386.png]] **Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
973 | | |[[image:1584714802324-501.png]] [[image:1584714850558-530.png]]|Motion component direction|[[[[image:1584715057079-206.png]] **Parallel with line** (Geometry)>>Parallel with line (Geometry)]]
974 | | |[[image:1584712154811-509.png]] [[image:1584712090694-106.png]]|Component direction|[[[[image:1584715075140-697.png]] **Perpendicular to plane** (Geometry)>>Perpendicular to plane (Geometry)]]
975 |[[**Line support group**>>doc:.Line support group (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711431853-510.png]]|[[image:1584714765861-406.png]] [[image:1584714798601-762.png]] [[image:1584714852297-294.png]]|Component direction|- (**Predefined direction**)
976 | | |(((
977 [[image:1584712145237-643.png]] [[image:1584712094285-339.png]]
978 )))|(((
979 Component direction
980
981 (reference system)
982 )))|(((
983 [[[[image:1584715043353-386.png]] **Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
984
985 [[[[image:1584715057079-206.png]] **Parallel with line** (Geometry)>>Parallel with line (Geometry)]]
986
987 [[[[image:1584715075140-697.png]] **Perpendicular to plane** (Geometry)>>Perpendicular to plane (Geometry)]]
988 )))
989 |(((
990 [[**Point-point connection**>>doc:.Point-point connection (Geometry).WebHome]]
991 )))|[[image:1584711439003-394.png]]|[[image:1584714772017-255.png]] [[image:1584714795090-522.png]] [[image:1584714857590-118.png]] [[image:1584712134914-287.png]] [[image:1584712114611-699.png]]|Component direction|(((
992 [[[[image:1584714999028-689.png]]** Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
993
994 [[[[image:1584715029847-320.png]]**// //Local system** (Geometry)>>Local system (Geometry)]]
995 )))
996 |[[**Line-line connection**>>doc:.Line-line connection (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711444378-138.png]]|(((
997 [[image:1584714780200-418.png]] [[image:1584714789968-872.png]] [[image:1584714864191-992.png]] [[image:1584712128585-509.png]] [[image:1584711616851-229.png]]
998
999
1000 )))|Component direction|(((
1001 [[[[image:1584714999028-689.png]]** Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
1002
1003 [[[[image:1584715029847-320.png]]**// //Local system** (Geometry)>>Local system (Geometry)]]
1004 )))
1005
1006 Table: Structural Objects and their direction settings
1007
1008 = {{id name="Change Direction"/}}**Change Direction** =
1009
1010 Any previously set direction can be modified by the editing commands (//Edit// menu): **Change direction** and **Rotate**.
1011
1012 //Change direction// uses the **Predefined direction**, **Parallel with line** and **Perpendicular to plane** direction definition tools.
1013
1014 [[image:1584717194269-503.png]]
1015
1016
1017 Figure: Beam position (local y’ axis) is modified with Change direction
1018
1019 //Rotate// edits a selected direction or the main direction of a selected system with giving new direction points or the rotation angle. Rotation works around a given point or an axis.
1020
1021 [[image:1584717201569-985.png]]
1022
1023 Figure: Rotate modifies the main direction (x’) of the Point support group
1024
1025 = {{id name="Supports and Connections"/}}Supports and Connections =
1026
1027 This chapter summarizes the possibilities and properties of the available supports and connections.
1028
1029 The connection with the ground (model space) can be modeled with //Supports//, while the link among structural elements can be defined with //Connections//. All support/connection components can be set to:
1030
1031 * “infinite” rigid: blocked motion/rotation,
1032 * “free”: released motion/rotation, or
1033 * semi-rigid: given stiffness value (spring) against motion/rotation.
1034
1035 **Non-linear behaviors**, independent compression and tension, elastic and plastic behaviour settings are also available for all motion and rotation components.
1036
1037 |[[image:light.png]]|//Edge connection //is a special tool of structural object definitions. Although it was described at planar objects (like [[**Plate**>>doc:.Plate (Geometry).WebHome]]), the following connection settings and functions are also valid for //Edge connections//.
1038
1039 |(% style="width:105px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1385px" %)(((
1040 **Support motion loads** have to be assigned to supports, so supports are requested input parameters for motion-type loads.
1041
1042 Always try to create stable structural model by defining correct support and connection conditions. From unstable (kinematically indeterminate) structure equilibrium error can be resulted. In that case the program sends a warning message at the end of the calculations, and you can determine the location of the problems by checking the equilibrium (//Analysis// > **Equilibrium**), the displacement/buckling and/vibration shape results of the structure. It may also happen that the model is so incorrect that calculations stops with error messages and without results.
1043 )))
1044
1045 == “Infinite” Rigidity ==
1046
1047 The value of “infinite” rigidity can be defined and set as project default by support/connection types and components at //Settings > All > FEM//. Go through the //Motion// and //Rotation// components by support and connections types and set the requested stiffness value that model blocked absolute/relative displacement.
1048
1049 |[[image:light.png]]|(((
1050 The “rigid” values can be set to default for further projects, if select //“Rigid” values// in the //Settings //tree and click //Save as default//.
1051
1052 (% style="text-align:center" %)
1053 [[image:1585063861141-403.png]]
1054
1055 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
1056 Figure: “Rigid” values
1057 )))
1058
1059 |[[image:light.png]]|(((
1060 The “rigid” value can be set by support/connection/fictitious bar element inside its settings dialog (//Setup “Rigid”//) independently of the project default.
1061
1062 (% style="text-align:center" %)
1063 [[image:1585063900363-901.png]]
1064
1065 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
1066 Figure: “Rigid” value set by support objects
1067 )))
1068
1069 == Properties (Non-linear behaviours) ==
1070
1071 Compression, tension, elastic and plastic behavior of supports and connections can be set separately and by components.
1072
1073 [[image:1585063962335-274.png]]
1074
1075 Figure: The parts of typical support/connection settings dialogs
1076
1077 * **Stiffness fields by compression and tension**
1078 //“Rigid”// or //Free// can be chosen from the pop-ups, or stiffness value (spring support/connection) can be typed in the fields.(((
1079 |[[image:light.png]]|(((
1080 Active [[image:1585064011285-311.png]] icon assigns the stiffness value typed in the //Compression// field to the //Tension// field. Inactive icon [[image:1585064017291-624.png]] lets to define the stiffness values separately.
1081 )))
1082 )))
1083 * **Predefined types**
1084 Click [[image:1585064057071-311.png]] to set all motion and rotation components to “rigid”. The result will be a totally rigid support/connection.
1085 Click [[image:1585064062442-248.png]] to set all rotation components to “free” (allow rotation around all directions). The result will be a hinged support/connection.
1086 Click [[image:1585064073613-904.png]] to set all components to free. This tool gives the possibility to virtually connect independently moving elements.(((
1087 |(% style="width:102px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1348px" %)(((
1088 **“**Uplift” can be modeled both in 2D and 3D design modules by defining compression-only //support /// //connection// (tension = 0 (free)) and by checking the **Consider non-linear behavior of supports, trusses and connections**// //box at //Calculate> Analysis//.
1089
1090 [[image:1585064110145-957.png]]
1091
1092 Figure: Allow uplift in Plate and 3D Structure modules
1093 )))
1094 )))
1095
1096 * **Using “Detach” option**
1097 The nonlinear behavior of supports and connections (//Point support//, //Point support group, Line support, Line support group, Surface support, 3D //Plates and Walls //Edge connection, border //and //panel// connection of //Timber panels //and// Profiled panels//) can be controlled by one signed component. It means, if the force in the connection / support happen to act in this selected direction, all spring constants will be set to 0, so called it is detached. This option can be set in the dialog, where the spring coefficients are set. If in the //Detach// list anything is selected (e.g. z’ tension) the corresponding spring constant will be automatically set to 0.
1098 \\[[image:1585064150149-209.png]]
1099
1100 |(% style="width:88px" %)[[image:1585064177336-343.png]]|(% style="width:1402px" %)(((
1101 If in Calculations dialog the ”//Consider non-linear behavior of supports, trusses and connections//” option is checked the calculation method is the following: If in the connection where the detach behavior is defined (e.g. z’ tension) the connection force is tension in the given direction (z’) in an iteration step all of the other spring constant will be set to 0. If in any later iteration step the connection force will be compression, the spring constants will be set to the previously defined values.
1102
1103 [[image:1585064193502-609.png]]
1104 )))
1105
1106 |[[image:warning.png]]|There is a big difference between setting any of the components to zero or selecting a detach behavior. If the user sets manually a component to zero, in the analysis the connection or support will not have rigidity in that direction.
1107
1108 == Supports ==
1109
1110 === **Support types** ===
1111
1112 The following table summarizes the available support types and their main features in the different FEM-Design Modules.
1113
1114 |[[image:warning.png]]|[[**Column**>>doc:.Column (Geometry).WebHome]] and [[**Plane wall**>>doc:.Wall (Geometry).WebHome]] are developed to model single point and line support in [[image:1585064308121-249.png]] //Plate// module. These types of support are not mentioned in the //Support// chapter.
1115
1116 (% style="width:256px" %)
1117 |(% style="width:73px" %)Icon|(% style="width:180px" %)Name
1118 |(% style="width:73px" %)[[image:1585064474212-720.png]]|(% style="width:180px" %)[[Point support>>Point support (Geometry)]]
1119 |(% style="width:73px" %)[[image:1585064468499-110.png]]|(% style="width:180px" %)[[Point support group>>Point support group (Geometry)]]
1120 |(% style="width:73px" %)[[image:1585064429398-198.png]]|(% style="width:180px" %)[[Line support>>Line support (Geometry)]]
1121 |(% style="width:73px" %)[[image:1585064423053-113.png]]|(% style="width:180px" %)[[Line support group>>Line support group (Geometry)]]
1122 |(% style="width:73px" %)[[image:1585064415542-626.png]]|(% style="width:180px" %)[[Surface support group>>Surface support group (Geometry)]]
1123
1124 == **Single Support versus Support group** ==
1125
1126 Single Support defines only one component in one step, whilst Support group places a group of more components in one step. Although single Supports can be combined and work as a group support, it is recommended to define multi-support conditions with Support group, because all support components can be set or modified later (with the [[image:1585148173109-272.png]] //Properties// tool) inside one settings dialog.
1127
1128 [[image:1585148177757-781.png]]
1129
1130 Figure: A fully rigid support modeled by six single Support components or one Support group
1131
1132 Special color-system differentiates //single Supports// from the //Support group// components. Whilst a single// Support// uses the color of the “Supports”// //(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Object layer**(%%), the components of a //Support group// are displayed in the colors equivalent with the support’s //Local system// (//Settings > All > Display > Support //and //Local systems//).
1133
1134 [[image:1585148198162-954.png]]
1135
1136 Figure: Color settings of support types
1137
1138 == Connection Objects ==
1139
1140 **Connection types**
1141
1142 (% style="width:284px" %)
1143 |(% style="width:84px" %)Icon|(% style="width:197px" %)Function
1144 |(% style="width:84px" %)[[image:1585065760145-701.png]]|(% style="width:197px" %)[[Point-point connection>>doc:.Point-point connection (Geometry).WebHome]]
1145 |(% style="width:84px" %)[[image:1585065769120-640.png]]|(% style="width:197px" %)[[Line-line connection>>doc:.Line-line connection (Geometry).WebHome]]
1146
1147 |(% style="width:104px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1386px" %)(((
1148 (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Edge connection**(%%) is not a “connection object”. It is a definition tool for boundary connection conditions, which is available for (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Plate**(%%)/(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Wall**(%%), (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Profiled panel**(%%) and (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Timber Panel**(%%) elements. But, the (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**non-linear behavior and component settings**(%%) are valid for edge connections introduced for the supports and below mentioned connection elements. See the definition modes and possibilities of an (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Edge connection at Plate**(%%).
1149
1150 The end connection property of the bar elements are also not “connection objects”. You can read more about them at the (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Beam**(%%), (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Column**(%%) and (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Fictitious bar** **connection**(%%) settings.
1151 )))
1152
1153 For the end points of the edge connections two options are available:
1154
1155 * Separate end points from environment,
1156 * Connect end point to environment.
1157
1158 In all Shell Toolwindows this setting is available by choosing ‘Edge connection’ then clicking [[image:1585148332414-120.png]] on ‘End point behaviour’ [[image:1585148337443-223.png]]**// //** button. The end point can be chosen in three steps by selecting the Plate or Wall, then the edge and finally the end point.
1159
1160 [[image:1585148343595-809.png]]
1161
1162 |(% style="width:88px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1402px" %)(((
1163 Using this function can solve problems like the one on the picture below:
1164
1165 On the right side structure all edge connection end points are connected to the environment which cases difference between the shear force on the wall and the sum of shear forces on the plate panels, which should be in balance according to common sense and this is exactly the case on the left side structure where edge connection end points are separated from the environment.
1166
1167 [[image:1585148385776-904.png]]
1168 )))
1169
1170 == Plastic calculation ==
1171
1172 The plastic data can be set in the //Default settings/Data tab //of each above mentioned options. The figure shows where the feature is placed in the dialog.
1173
1174 [[image:1585064808744-872.png]]
1175
1176 == Rigidity type ==
1177
1178 This option is used by **[[Point support group>>doc:.Point support group (Geometry).WebHome]], [[Line support group>>doc:.Line support group (Geometry).WebHome]], [[Surface support group>>doc:.Surface support group (Geometry).WebHome]]**//, //**Edge connection**// //in [[**Plane Plate**>>doc:.Plate (Geometry).WebHome]]// //and **[[Wall>>doc:.Wall (Geometry).WebHome]] **structural objects, Point-point connection, Line-line connection, border// //and //panel// connection of [[**Timber**>>doc:.Timber panel (Geometry).WebHome]] and [[**Profiled panels**>>doc:.Profiled panel (Geometry).WebHome]]. With rigidity type the user can define and load specific predefined spring constants.
1179
1180 If the rigidity type is //Custom// the user can define the spring constants as in previous versions. To define a type the user has to choose the //Edit library…// option.
1181
1182 [[image:1585064901136-748.png]]
1183
1184 After defining rigidity types, the defined spring constants will be registered in the Library and it can be loaded in the future.
1185
1186 [[image:1585064908346-534.png]]
1187
1188 |[[image:warning.png]]|(((
1189 There are some objects that use the same rigidity type library:
1190
1191 * //Line – line connection, Edge connection (3D Plate, Wall), border //and //panel// connection of //Timber panels //and// Profiled panels//
1192 )))
1193
1194 = {{id name="Construction stages"/}}Construction stages =
1195
1196 Construction stages are explained on this page: [[Construction stages>>Construction stages (Geometry)]]
1197
1198
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