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2 Prefab Print is an extension to FEM-design that is developed to give a quick overview over the analysis results from FEM-Design 3D Structure, and at the same time be able to compile a report to the precast concrete supplier. By using the software a uniform structure and high level of quality of the results can be maintained for your precast concrete models.
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5 The purpose of the program is to display the loads and the resulting forces on the structure storey by storey down to the foundation and present a documentation of stabilizing forces for the precast concrete supplier in a simple and standardized way in a smart PDF-document. The file format gives any supplier the possibility to see the results, even though they are not using FEM-Design.
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8 Prefab Print is a powerful tool that gives the user the possibility to create dynamic reports. By selecting the tooltip-option in the program Prefab Print is able to show large amounts of data in a very limited space and still be very easy to read. Information about objects, loads, load combinations etc. can be found by simply clicking on given objects in the file, a tooltip window will show the information about the object. This will reduce the time for searching through long tables with information.
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10 Contents:
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12 {{toc depth="3" start="2"/}}
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14 ----
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16 == Improvements in FEM-Design 20 ==
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18 [[Check all the improvements in Prefab Print implemented in FEM-Design 20.>>doc:New features.FEM-Design 20 New Features.Documentation.WebHome]]
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21 == Modelling in FEM-Design ==
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23 It is important to remember that Prefab Print might need the FEM-model to be modelled in a certain way.
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25 Read more in the [[Limitations and known issues>>||anchor="Limitations and known issues"]]-section.
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27
28 === Edge connections ===
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30 It is of most importance to define edge connections towards connecting shell elements as they are used to track and display reactions and connection forces in the report.
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32 One example of necessary connections is shown in //Figure 1//. The program will display an error message if a edge connection is missing since the equilibrium of all elements are checked.
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34 [[image:1587367194188-541.png]]
35 **Figure 1.** Example of edge connections.
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37 [[image:Edge connections.gif]]
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39 **Figure 2.** Example of how to quickly setup and model a hinged wall
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41 In the first release of Prefab Print, the reactions from the wall will only be presented if it is placed at an edge connection. In practice it means that the FEM-model might have to be modelled in a different way. In the second release it is now possible to model T-junctions similar to //Figure 3.//
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43 [[image:1587367226235-890.png]]
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45 **Figure 3.** Solution for a T-junction where there are no edge connections.
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47
48 === Storeys ===
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50 [[Storeys>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Basic concept.WebHome||anchor="HStorey"]] are used in the program to define different levels of the building. If no [[storeys>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Basic concept.WebHome||anchor="HStorey"]] are defined in FEM-Design all results will be shown in the same picture in the printout. It is therefor recommended to always create [[storeys>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Basic concept.WebHome||anchor="HStorey"]] in FEM-Design to get a simpler and faster result document.
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52 If the [[storeys>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Basic concept.WebHome||anchor="HStorey"]] are defined, then links will be created in the document enabling shortcuts to the different results for each storey.
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54 [[image:1587367238617-692.png]]
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56 **Figure 4.** Storeys in Prefab Print
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58
59 === Axis ===
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61 With the help of [[axis>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Basic concept.WebHome||anchor="HAxis"]] in FEM-Design, the user has possibilities to switch between different elevations to get a better overview of the model. These axis are used in Prefab Print to enhance the readability of the printout. In the printout an elevation of each axis are shown and a bookmark is generated in the bookmark-list. By clicking on the mark in the list the user can seperate the results per axis.
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63
64 === Shell elements ===
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66 The shell elementens ([[Plane Plate>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Plate (Geometry).WebHome]], [[Profiled Plate>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Profiled panel (Geometry).WebHome]], [[Plane Wall>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Wall (Geometry).WebHome]] and [[Profiled Wall>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Profiled panel (Geometry).WebHome]]) must be assigned a concrete material and the elements are not allowed to have variable thicknesses.
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68
69 === Truss member ===
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71 All types of tensile anchors and connections should be modelled using [[truss members>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Truss member (Geometry).WebHome]] in FEM-design, see //Figure 5//. The material for the connections must be steel, and the user has the option to customize the properties of the steel similar to what the supplier of the connection presents for their connections, this can be managed by setting a plastic limit , see //Figure 6//. Note that the end of the truss should be placed within the borders of the shell element, on the edge do not count as being within the borders. In general these connectors do not transfer and compressive forces. In general a dowel of S355-steel is used, with a yield strength of f,,yk,, = 355 MPa, but dowels using reinforcement bars are commonly used (f,,yk,, = 500 MPa), this is shown in //Figure 8//.
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73 [[image:1587367247714-363.png]]
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75 **Figure 5.** [[Truss member>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Truss member (Geometry).WebHome]] in FEM-Design
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77 [[image:1587461321243-610.png]]
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79 **Figure 6.** Setting a plastic limit of a [[Truss member>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Truss member (Geometry).WebHome]] in FEM-Design
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81 [[image:1587367254991-632.png]]
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83 **Figure 7. **Definition of a new steel material, first select a steel material and then press //New...//
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85 [[image:1587367259637-674.png]]
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87 **Figure 8.** Definition of a new steel material. Prefab-Print automatically selects the lowest yield strength in the red selection box.
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89
90 === Loads ===
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92 Point and line loads needs to be assigned to a shell element, while surface loads works fine with covers too. This is an important step in the FE-modelling in order for the program to decide where the load is being applied.
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94 This can be done in two ways. Either by using the //Assign load to structure//, shown in //Figure 9// (recommended solution). Or by placing the load in such a way that Prefab Print can comfortably identify on that shell element it is being applied on. For example in //Figure 10// the point load could be moved 1mm to the left or the right to only act on one structural element, same with the line load that could be moved up or down a few millimeters to not be acting on the joint. The second of these ways are more time consuming, and might be harder to find errors in. //Assign load to structure// is by far the most reliable command in order to reduce modelling time and cause less problems if a setting like //Assign mesh to load position// is being used.
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96 [[image:1587367270871-561.png]]
97 **Figure 9.**  Assign load to structure
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100 [[image:1587367276874-595.png]] [[image:1587367281546-224.png]]
101 **Figure 10.**  Exemple of a point load and line load that is badly placed, i.e. not assigned to any structures, only edges or corners of more than one structure.
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103
104 == Design checks ==
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106 [[image:1587367293590-856.png]] Design checks are only added if it is being activated withi the program. The option is found in the print out settings.
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108 [[image:1587471462805-816.png]]
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110 **Figure 11.**  Settings of the print out, highlighting the design checks.
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112 === Edge connections ===
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114 It is possible to assign two load capacities for the edge connections for Prefab Print, the program will choose the lowest in the design checks. The first one can be set in FEM-Design (using the [[plastic limit>>||anchor="HPlasticlimit"]]) and the second will be defined in Prefab Print from the [[compression capacity>>||anchor="HGeneraldesigncheck"]] of the materials.
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116 ====
117 Plastic limit ====
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119 All plastic boundary conditions in the FEM-Design shell elements are checked at design of the edge connections. This is being performed independently of what calculation is being made in FEM-Design.
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121 For example the plastic limit force for a 200mm thick wall using the settings in //Figure 12// would be: [[image:1587367321472-791.png]]. Note that for shear the limit value will be chosen as the smallest value in compression or tension, even if only one of them are defined for both edge connections for both elements.
122 [[image:1587367334918-964.png]] .
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124 **Figure 12.** Definition of plastic limits for edge connections in FEM-Design, and how Prefab Print will read the following limits: //V,,Rd ,,= 45 kN/m//, //C,,Rd ,,= 4000 kN/m// och //T,,Rd ,,= 10 kN/m//
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126
127 ==== General design check ====
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129 The capacity of the concrete is defined in the program as [[image:1587472848585-352.png]] where //f,,cd,,// is the design compression capacity, //f,,ck,,// is the concrete characteristic compression strength (shown to the left in //Figure 13//) and //γ,,c,,// is the partial factor for concrete according to the right window in //Figure 13//. If the user wants lower values it can be set as in the [[Plastic limit>>||anchor="HPlasticlimit"]] section.
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131 [[image:1587367638836-895.png]] [[image:1587367643438-851.png]]
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133 **Figure 13.** Definitions of concrete properties in FEM-Design. Left: Characteristic strength of a concrete cylinder. Right: Red arrows show the partial factors of concrete //γ,,c,,// in ultimate limit state (//U//) to the left and accidental and seismic loading to the right (//U,,a,,//,// U,,s,,//). The partial coefficients of the dowels will be shown in the steel material properties as //γ,,s,,// in ultimate limit state (//U//) to the left and accidental and seismic loading to the right (//U,,a,,//,// U,,s,,//).
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135 By defining the edge connections as //Detach y’ tension//, see //Figure 14//., the program will calculate the design shear capacity according to the formula: //V,,Rd ,,//= //C,,Ed ,,//× µ. Where //V,,Rd,,// is the design shear strength, //C,,Ed,,// is the design compressive resultant in the shear area and µ is the friction factor.
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137 [[image:1587367651306-323.png]]
138 \\**Figure 14.**  Exemple of a non-linear detachable edge connection in FEM-Design. Use //Detach y’ tension// to find the y-direction to only get shear in the areas where there is only compression in the joint.
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140
141 === Truss member ===
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143 The program will use the smallest limit of elasticity, i.e. Yield strength, for all thicknesses in the model to check the tensile capacityof the dowels. The formula used is [[image:1587387918081-235.png]] . Where //T,,Rd,,// is the design tensile capacity of the dowels, //A,,s,,// is the truss cross section, //f,,yk,,// is the characteristic strength of the steel and //γ,,s,,// is the largest partial coefficient of the connected shell elements. If there is compression in the tension trusses/dowels, the program will use the design strength of 0,8×//T,,Rd,,//. If the user doesn't want the dowel to take and compression it can be set as in //Figure 6//.
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145
146 == {{id name="Limitations and known issues"/}}Limitations and Known issues ==
147
148 * This version is for 3D-building only.
149 * Shell elements ([[Plane Plate>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Plate (Geometry).WebHome]], [[Profiled Plate>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Profiled panel (Geometry).WebHome]], [[Plane Wall>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Wall (Geometry).WebHome]], [[Profiled Wall>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Profiled panel (Geometry).WebHome]] and [[Fictitious Shell>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Fictitious shell (Geometry).WebHome]]) needs to be vertical. In other words, the normal vector of the shell needs to be zero in global z-direction.
150 ** Note that covers don't have that limitation and can be used as load dividing elements for floors etc.
151 * Edge connections needs to be straight lines, They can't take the shapes of circles or circle segments.
152 * No design control will be performed for:
153 ** Beams
154 ** Columns
155 ** Fictious bars
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