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1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
2 {{toc/}}
3 {{/box}}
4
5 (% class="wikigeneratedid" id="HLoadtypes" %)
6 After defining the structure and support elements, the next step is adding loads to the statical system. This chapter sums all load possibilities, load definition (directions and geometry) and combination modes. Mass definition required for dynamic calculation is also introduced in this chapter. Let’s click on [[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/image-20200303144044-4.png||alt="image-20200303144044-4.png"]] tabmenu to reach all load definition commands.
7
8 = {{id name="Load Types"/}}Load Types =
9
10 Depending on the current FEM-Design Module (license you have), the available type of load commands is different. Loads can be defined with their insertion point, action line or action region.
11
12 The commands for defining loads can be started from the [[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/image-20200303144044-4.png||alt="image-20200303144044-4.png"]] Tabmenu.
13
14 To show the mostly used load commands and to hide the rarely used ones; you can organize the icons in expanded or compact form.
15
16 [[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1583242896004-752.png||alt="1583242896004-752.png"]]
17
18 In compact mode, you see the icon of the last used command. If you click on the command's symbol, the program opens its tool palette. You can reach the other same type load by clicking on the [[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/image-20200303144144-5.png||alt="image-20200303144144-5.png"]] symbol.
19
20 Each command has a **Tool palette** with the customizable load properties (load value/intensity, host load case etc.) and the definition tools of the load geometry and position (direction).
21
22 (% border="1" class="table-hover" style="width:1219px" %)
23 |=(% style="text-align: center; background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 261px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Type|=(% style="text-align: center; background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 84px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Icon|=(% colspan="5" rowspan="1" style="text-align: center; background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 439px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Available in these modules|=(% style="text-align: center; background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 101px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Definition mode|=(% style="text-align: center; background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 109px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Direction|=(% style="text-align: center; background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 104px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Intensity|=(% style="text-align: center; background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 118px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Default short command
24 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %) |=(% scope="row" style="width: 84px;" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582551311545-717.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582554906555-960.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)[[image:1582555877428-975.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %)[[image:1582555973562-928.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582557793616-373.png]]|(% style="width:101px" %) |(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)
25 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Structural dead load>>Structural dead load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582558225883-431.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="width:101px" %)Automatic|(% style="width:109px" %)(((
26 Global Z-axis
27 )))|(% style="width:104px" %)-|(% style="width:118px" %)
28 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Soil dead load>>Soil dead load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="width:85px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="width:101px" %)Automatic|(% style="width:109px" %)Global Z-axis|(% style="width:104px" %)-|(% style="width:118px" %)
29 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Point load (force and/or moment)>>Point load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/image-20200303150634-9.png||alt="image-20200303150634-9.png"]]|(% style="width:95px" %)(((
30 (% style="text-align:center" %)
31 [[image:1582558228675-662.png]]
32
33 (((
34
35 )))
36 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)(((
37 [[image:1582558519492-182.png]]
38
39 (% style="text-align:center" %)(Vertical only)
40 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %)[[image:1582558228675-662.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558228675-662.png]]|(% style="width:101px" %)Point |(% style="width:109px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:104px" %)Constant |(% style="width:118px" %)LP
41 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Line load (force and/or moment)>>Line load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1583328809845-414.png||alt="1583328809845-414.png" height="27" width="27"]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)(((
42 [[image:1582558576330-285.png]]
43
44 (% style="text-align:center" %)(Vertical only)
45 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="width:101px" %)Line|(% style="width:109px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:104px" %)Constant /Variable |(% style="width:118px" %)LL
46 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Surface load (force)>>Surface load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1583331649115-234.png||alt="1583331649115-234.png" height="29" width="29"]]|(% style="width:95px" %)(((
47 (% style="text-align:center" %)
48 [[image:1582558227577-905.png]]
49
50 (((
51
52 )))
53 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)(((
54 [[image:1582558576330-285.png]]
55
56 (% style="text-align:center" %)(Vertical only)
57 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="width:101px" %)Region|(% style="width:109px" %)(((
58 Arbitrary
59 )))|(% style="width:104px" %)Constant /Variable|(% style="width:118px" %)LS
60 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Line temperature variation load>>Thermal load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585828122341-716.png||alt="1585828122341-716.png"]]|(% style="width:95px" %)(((
61 (% style="text-align:center" %)
62 [[image:1582558227577-905.png]]
63
64 (((
65
66 )))
67 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)(((
68 [[image:1582558576330-285.png]]
69
70 (% style="text-align:center" %)(Fixed only)
71 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="width:101px" %)Line|(% style="width:109px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LTL
72 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Surface temperature variation load>>Thermal load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585828133274-995.png||alt="1585828133274-995.png"]]|(% style="width:95px" %)(((
73 (% style="text-align:center" %)
74 [[image:1582558227577-905.png]]
75 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="width:101px" %)Region|(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LTS
76 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Line stress load>>Initial internal load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585828894842-943.png||alt="1585828894842-943.png"]]|(% style="width:95px" %)(((
77 (% style="text-align:center" %)
78 [[image:1582558227577-905.png]]
79 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="width:101px" %)Line|(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LSTL
80 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Surface stress load>>doc:.Initial internal load (Load).WebHome]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585828907787-696.png||alt="1585828907787-696.png"]]|(% style="width:95px" %)(((
81 (% style="text-align:center" %)
82 [[image:1582558227577-905.png]]
83 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="width:101px" %)Region|(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LSTS
84 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Point support motion>>Support motion (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585828104105-672.png||alt="1585828104105-672.png"]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)(((
85 [[image:1582558227577-905.png]]
86 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="width:101px" %) |(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LSUP
87 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Line support motion>>Support motion (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585828064786-106.png||alt="1585828064786-106.png"]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)(((
88 [[image:1582558227577-905.png]]
89 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="width:101px" %) |(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LSUL
90 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)(((
91 [[Surface support motion>>Support motion (Load)]]
92 )))|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585828093570-807.png||alt="1585828093570-807.png"]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)(((
93 [[image:1582558227577-905.png]]
94 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)(((
95 [[image:1582558227577-905.png]]
96
97 (% style="text-align:center" %)(Vertical only)
98 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="width:101px" %)Region|(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LSUS
99 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Shrinkage>>Shrinkage (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="width: 84px;" %)(((
100 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
101 -
102 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="width:101px" %)(Automatic)|(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)
103 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Mass>>Mass (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585828028844-717.png||alt="1585828028844-717.png"]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="width:101px" %)Point |(% style="width:109px" %)Global Z-axis|(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LMASS
104 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Seismic load>>Seismic load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585828166593-883.png||alt="1585828166593-883.png"]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="width:101px" %)(Automatic)|(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LSEIS
105 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Footfall analysis data>>Footfall analysis data (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585827995804-639.png||alt="1585827995804-639.png"]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="width:101px" %)(Automatic)|(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LFF
106 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Wind load>>Wind load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585828249244-605.png||alt="1585828249244-605.png"]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="width:101px" %)(Automatic)|(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)(((
107 LWINDR
108
109 LWINDG
110 )))
111 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Snow load>>Snow load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585828010034-156.png||alt="1585828010034-156.png"]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="width:101px" %)(Automatic)|(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LSNOW
112 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Deviation load>>Deviation load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585820415145-587.png||alt="1585820415145-587.png"]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="width:101px" %)(Automatic)|(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LDEV
113 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Notional load>>Notional load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585820337339-847.png||alt="1585820337339-847.png"]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="width:101px" %)(Automatic)|(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LNOT
114 |=(% style="width: 261px;" %)[[Moving load>>Moving load (Load)]]|=(% scope="row" style="text-align: center; width: 84px;" %)[[image:https://wiki.fem-design.strusoft.com/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/download/Manuals/User%20Manual/Loads/WebHome/1585825242913-364.png||alt="1585825242913-364.png"]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:95px" %)[[image:1582558227577-905.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:81px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:93px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:85px" %) |(% style="width:101px" %)Special|(% style="width:109px" %) |(% style="width:104px" %) |(% style="width:118px" %)LMOV
115
116 |[[image:1582554329138-224.png]]|FEM-Design 3D Structure
117 |[[image:1582554910943-252.png]]|FEM-Design 3D Frame
118 |[[image:1582555877428-975.png]]|FEM-Design Plate
119 |[[image:1582555973562-928.png]]|FEM-Design Wall
120 |[[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|FEM-Design Plane Strain
121 | |
122
123 = {{id name="Load Direction"/}}Load Direction =
124
125 Most of the load objects need direction settings. The next table summarizes only the editable direction possibilities by load types. Other load types have fixed direction (for example in Plate module, Force direction is always perpendicular to the calculation plane, so it is parallel with the global Z direction).
126
127 (% border="1" style="width:1112px" %)
128 |=(% scope="row" style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 271px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Type|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 316px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Modules where available|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 255px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Direction for...|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 267px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Direction Modes
129 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="3" style="width: 271px;" %)[[Point load>>doc:.Point load (Load).WebHome]]|(% style="width:316px" %)[[image:1582555877428-975.png]]|(% style="width:255px" %)Moment direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Predefined direction>>||anchor="Predefined direction"]]
130 |=(% style="width: 316px;" %)[[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|(% style="width:255px" %)Force direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Parallel with line>>||anchor="Parallel with line"]]
131 |=(% style="width: 316px;" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]]|(% style="width:255px" %)Force/Moment direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Perpendicular to plane>>||anchor="Perpendicular to plane/line"]]
132 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width: 271px;" %)[[Line load>>doc:.Line load (Load).WebHome]]|(% style="width:316px" %)[[image:1582555877428-975.png]]|(% style="width:255px" %)Moment direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Predefined direction>>||anchor="Predefined direction"]]
133 |=(% style="width: 316px;" %)[[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|(% style="width:255px" %)Force direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Parallel with line>>||anchor="Parallel with line"]]
134 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" style="width: 316px;" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" style="width:255px" %)Force/Moment direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Perpendicular to plane>>||anchor="Perpendicular to plane/line"]]
135 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Objects local plane>>||anchor="Object’s local system"]]
136 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width: 271px;" %)[[Surface load>>doc:.Surface load (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width:316px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width:255px" %)Force direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Predefined direction>>||anchor="Predefined direction"]]
137 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Parallel with line>>||anchor="Parallel with line"]]
138 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Perpendicular to plane>>||anchor="Perpendicular to plane/line"]]
139 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Objects local plane>>||anchor="Object’s local system"]]
140 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width: 271px;" %)[[Line temperature variation load>>doc:.Thermal load (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width:316px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width:255px" %)Direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Predefined direction>>||anchor="Predefined direction"]]
141 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Parallel with line>>||anchor="Parallel with line"]]
142 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Perpendicular to plane>>||anchor="Perpendicular to plane/line"]]
143 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Objects local plane>>||anchor="Object’s local system"]]
144 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width: 271px;" %)[[Surface temperature variation load>>doc:.Thermal load (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width:316px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width:255px" %)Direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Predefined direction>>||anchor="Predefined direction"]]
145 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Parallel with line>>||anchor="Parallel with line"]]
146 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Perpendicular to plane>>||anchor="Perpendicular to plane/line"]]
147 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Objects local plane>>||anchor="Object’s local system"]]
148 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width: 271px;" %)[[Line stress load>>doc:.Initial internal load (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width:316px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width:255px" %)Direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Predefined direction>>||anchor="Predefined direction"]]
149 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Parallel with line>>||anchor="Parallel with line"]]
150 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Perpendicular to plane>>||anchor="Perpendicular to plane/line"]]
151 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Objects local plane>>||anchor="Object’s local system"]]
152 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width: 271px;" %)[[Surface stress load>>doc:.Initial internal load (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width:316px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]] [[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width:255px" %)Direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Predefined direction>>||anchor="Predefined direction"]]
153 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Parallel with line>>||anchor="Parallel with line"]]
154 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Perpendicular to plane>>||anchor="Perpendicular to plane/line"]]
155 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Objects local plane>>||anchor="Object’s local system"]]
156 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width: 271px;" %)[[Point support motion load>>doc:.Support motion (Load).WebHome]]|(% style="width:316px" %)[[image:1582555877428-975.png]]|(% style="width:255px" %)Rotation direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Predefined direction>>||anchor="Predefined direction"]]
157 |=(% style="width: 316px;" %)[[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|(% style="width:255px" %)Motion direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Parallel with line>>||anchor="Parallel with line"]]
158 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" style="width: 316px;" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" style="width:255px" %)Motion/Rotation direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Perpendicular to plane>>||anchor="Perpendicular to plane/line"]]
159 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Objects local plane>>||anchor="Object’s local system"]]
160 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width: 271px;" %)[[Line support motion load>>doc:.Support motion (Load).WebHome]]|(% style="width:316px" %)[[image:1582555877428-975.png]]|(% style="width:255px" %)Rotation direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Predefined direction>>||anchor="Predefined direction"]]
161 |=(% style="width: 316px;" %)[[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|(% style="width:255px" %)Motion direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Parallel with line>>||anchor="Parallel with line"]]
162 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" style="width: 316px;" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" style="width:255px" %)Motion/Rotation direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Perpendicular to plane>>||anchor="Perpendicular to plane/line"]]
163 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Objects local plane>>||anchor="Object’s local system"]]
164 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width: 271px;" %)[[Surface support motion load>>doc:.Support motion (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width:316px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width:255px" %)Motion direction|(% style="width:267px" %)[[Predefined direction>>||anchor="Predefined direction"]]
165 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Parallel with line>>||anchor="Parallel with line"]]
166 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Perpendicular to plane>>||anchor="Perpendicular to plane/line"]]
167 |=(% style="width: 267px;" %)[[Objects local plane>>||anchor="Object’s local system"]]
168
169 == {{id name="Predefined direction"/}}Predefined direction ==
170
171 Icon: [[image:1582801904475-825.png]]
172
173 With this option an axis/a plane of the Global or the User-defined (UCS) co-ordinate system can be set for the required load direction. The direction can be chosen from the drop-down list attached to the //Predefined direction// option. The available directions depend on the applied FEM-Design Module (e.g. //Plate//, //3D Structure// etc.).
174
175 (% border="1" style="width:1049px" %)
176 |=(% style="width: 556px; background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203);" %) |=(% style="width: 108px; background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203);" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Symbol|=(% style="width: 263px; background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203);" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Meaning of direction|=(% style="width: 119px; background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203);" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)System
177 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:556px" %)[[image:line temp var 001.png]]|(% style="background-color:#f0f0f0; text-align:center; width:108px" %)[[image:dir 007.png]]|(% style="width:263px" %)Parallel with XY plane|(% style="width:119px" %)Global
178 |(% style="background-color:#f0f0f0; text-align:center; width:108px" %)[[image:dir 008.png]]|(% style="width:263px" %)Parallel with YZ plane|(% style="width:119px" %)Global
179 |(% style="background-color:#f0f0f0; text-align:center; width:108px" %)[[image:dir 009.png]]|(% style="width:263px" %)Parallel with XZ plane|(% style="width:119px" %)Global
180 |(% style="background-color:#f0f0f0; text-align:center; width:108px" %)[[image:dir 010.png]]|(% style="width:263px" %)Parallel with UCS (XY plane)|(% style="width:119px" %)UCS
181 |(% style="background-color:#f0f0f0; text-align:center; width:108px" %)[[image:dir 011.png]]|(% style="width:263px" %)Perpendicular to UCS (XY plane)|(% style="width:119px" %)UCS
182 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="6" style="width:556px" %)[[image:line var 001.png]]|(% style="background-color:#f0f0f0; text-align:center; width:108px" %)(% style="background-color:#bdc3c7" %)[[image:dir 006.png]]|(% style="width:263px" %)Parallel with global X axis|(% style="width:119px" %)Global
183 |(% style="background-color:#f0f0f0; text-align:center; width:108px" %)(% style="background-color:#bdc3c7" %)[[image:dir 002.png]]|(% style="width:263px" %)Parallel with global Y axis|(% style="width:119px" %)Global
184 |(% style="background-color:#f0f0f0; text-align:center; width:108px" %)(% style="background-color:#bdc3c7" %)[[image:dir 001.png]]|(% style="width:263px" %)Parallel with global Z axis|(% style="width:119px" %)Global
185 |(% style="background-color:#f0f0f0; text-align:center; width:108px" %)(% style="background-color:#bdc3c7" %)[[image:dir 003.png]]|(% style="width:263px" %)Parallel with X axis of UCS|(% style="width:119px" %)UCS
186 |(% style="background-color:#f0f0f0; text-align:center; width:108px" %)(% style="background-color:#bdc3c7" %)[[image:dir 004.png]]|(% style="width:263px" %)Parallel with Y axis of UCS|(% style="width:119px" %)UCS
187 |(% style="background-color:#f0f0f0; text-align:center; width:108px" %)(% style="background-color:#bdc3c7" %)[[image:dir 005.png]]|(% style="width:263px" %)Parallel with Z axis of UCS|(% style="width:119px" %)UCS
188
189 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
190 Table: The available directions to set the new load direction
191
192
193 [[image:para line 001.png]]
194
195 Figure: Examples of temperature loads placed on bar elements
196
197 In some cases, additional direction setting can be chosen from the definition tool palette:
198
199 [[image:1582801882654-291.png]] “Positive direction”: The orientation is the same with the selected axis orientation;
200
201 [[image:1582801889485-855.png]] “Negative direction”: The orientation is the opposite of the selected axis orientation.
202
203 [[image:para line 002.png]]
204
205 Figure: Examples of Point load direction
206
207 == {{id name="Parallel with line"/}}Parallel with line ==
208
209 Icon: [[image:1582801871131-967.png]]
210
211 With this option, the required load direction can be defined manually with its start and end points.
212
213 [[image:1582793811255-991.png]]
214
215 Figure: The load direction is parallel with the defined direction
216
217 == {{id name="Perpendicular to plane/line"/}}Perpendicular to plane/line ==
218
219 Icon: [[image:1582801855714-197.png]]
220
221 With this option, the required load direction will be perpendicular to a defined plane/line. The plane can be given with three points and the line with two points (start and end points). In case of the perpendicular plane, the third point defines the final orthogonal direction, which the new direction will be parallel with.
222
223 [[image:1582798812131-563.png]]
224
225 Figure: The line load direction is perpendicular to the defined plane
226
227 == {{id name="Object’s local system"/}}Object’s local system ==
228
229 Icon: [[image:1582801839669-398.png]]
230
231 If the load direction has to be set in the local co-ordinate system of the “assigned” structural object (beam, column, plate, wall and support), the fastest definition of load direction is to use the //Objects' local system //option. This feature is available for //Line//, //Surface//, //Line temperature variation//, //Line stress//,// Surface stress//, //Point support motion//, //Line support motion// and //Surface support motion load// in the 3D modules.
232
233 Using //Object’s local system//, the geometry definition of the line or surface load is skipped, because one click on the assigned structural object is enough after setting the requested local system axis direction.
234
235 (% border="0" %)
236 |[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|In case of surface loads, only load with constant intensity can be defined with the tool //Select objects to load in local system//. But, you can change intensity values (linear distribution) with the Variable intensity tool of the applied load command as a next step.
237
238 (% border="0" %)
239 |(% style="width:78px" %)[[image:1582804930808-349.png]]|(% style="width:1412px" %)One-click definition of constant surface loads perpendicular (e.g. wind) to planar objects (e.g. shells).
240
241 [[image:1582804964960-737.png]]
242
243 Figure: Fast definition of surface load by using object’s local system
244
245 (% border="0" %)
246 |(% style="width:85px" %)[[image:1582804930808-349.png]]|(% style="width:1405px" %)One-click definition of line load (constant or variable) perpendicular (e.g. wind load) to a beam reference line.
247
248 [[image:1582805226844-913.png]]
249
250 Figure: Fast definition of [[line load>>doc:.Line load (Load).WebHome]] by using object’s local system
251
252 (% border="0" %)
253 |(% style="width:82px" %)[[image:1582804930808-349.png]]|(% style="width:1408px" %)(((
254 One-click definition of point support motion parallel with a component direction of a point support.
255
256 [[image:1582805239171-520.png]]
257
258 Figure: Support motion added to a point support component
259 )))
260
261 (% border="0" %)
262 |(% style="width:107px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:1383px" %)(((
263 Only the same type support can be selected for a support motion:
264
265 |=Support motion load type|=**Support type**
266 |(((
267 [[image:1582805487606-840.png]] [[Point support motion load>>doc:.Support motion (Load).WebHome]]
268 )))|(((
269 [[image:1582805510652-725.png]] [[Point support>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Point support (Geometry).WebHome]]
270
271 [[image:1582805536480-902.png]] [[Point support group>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Point support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
272 )))
273 |(((
274 [[image:1582805494733-255.png]] [[Line support motion load>>doc:.Support motion (Load).WebHome]]
275 )))|(((
276 [[image:1582805519340-843.png||height="18" width="19"]] [[Line support>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Line support (Geometry).WebHome]]
277
278 [[image:1582805543342-916.png]] [[Line support group>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Line support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
279 )))
280 |(((
281 [[image:1582805501541-105.png]] [[Surface support motion load>>doc:.Support motion (Load).WebHome]]
282 )))|(((
283 [[image:1582805527510-884.png]] [[Surface support group>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Surface support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
284 )))
285
286 Table: Support motion load types and their proper support types
287 )))
288
289 == {{id name="Change direction Loads"/}}Change direction ==
290
291 Any previously set direction can be modified by the modifying commands (//Modify// menu): //Change direction// and //Rotate//.
292
293 //Change direction// uses the [[Predefined direction>>||anchor="Predefined direction"]], [[Parallel with line>>||anchor="Parallel with line"]] and [[Perpendicular to plane>>||anchor="Perpendicular to plane/line"]] direction definition tools.
294
295 //Rotate// edits a selected direction or the main direction of a selected system with giving new direction points or the rotation angle. Rotation works around a given point or an axis.
296
297 (% border="0" %)
298 |[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|Naturally, you cannot modify fix directions. For example in the [[image:1582805743458-568.png]] //Plate module// the [[point>>doc:.Point load (Load).WebHome]], [[line>>doc:.Line load (Load).WebHome]] and [[surface>>doc:.Surface load (Load).WebHome]] forces are always vertical (perpendicular to the calculation plane of the plates).
299
300 = {{id name="Load Geometry"/}}{{id name="Load Geometry"/}}Load Geometry =
301
302 The definition modes and the available shape of the loads’ action line/plane depend on:
303
304 * the load type: point, linear and surface load, and
305 * the current FEM-Design module.
306
307 The Tool palette of a load command contains only the available modes. The next table summarizes the geometry possibilities by the load types.
308
309 (% border="0" style="width:1143px" %)
310 |=(% scope="row" style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 305px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Type|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 361px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Modules where available|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 192px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Definition mode|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 282px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Geometry
311 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" style="width: 305px;" %)[[image:1583140902280-897.png]] [[Point load>>doc:.Point load (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" style="width:361px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]] [[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" style="width:192px" %)Reference point|(% style="width:282px" %)[[image:1583140879982-176.png]] Edit point (give an insertion point)
312 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140892256-993.png]] Select point>>||anchor="Select point"]]
313 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width: 305px;" %)[[image:1583140911834-896.png]] [[Line load>>doc:.Line load (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:361px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]] [[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:192px" %)Reference line|(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140952621-686.png]] Straight line>>||anchor="Straight line"]]
314 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140983881-948.png]] Arc by center, start and end points>>||anchor="Arc by center, start and end points"]]
315 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140997678-883.png]] Arc by 3 points>>||anchor="Arc by 3 points"]]
316 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140991199-574.png]] Arc by start, end point and tangent>>||anchor="Arc by start, end point and tangent"]]
317 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140968882-672.png]] Line by selection>>||anchor="Line by selection"]]
318 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width: 305px;" %)[[image:1583141094233-703.png]] [[Surface load>>doc:.Surface load (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:361px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]] [[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:192px" %)Reference region|(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141509174-936.png]] Rectangular>>||anchor="Rectangular"]]
319 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141515668-271.png]] Circular>>||anchor="Circular"]]
320 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141521736-476.png]] Polygonal>>||anchor="Polygonal"]]
321 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141534418-234.png]] Pick lines>>||anchor="Pick lines"]]
322 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141527310-477.png]] Pick existing region>>||anchor="Pick existing region"]]
323 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width: 305px;" %)[[image:1583141965368-281.png]] [[(% style="background-color:transparent" %)**Line temperature **(%%)**variation load**>>doc:.Thermal load (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:361px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:192px" %)Reference line|(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140952621-686.png]] Straight line>>||anchor="Straight line"]]
324 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140983881-948.png]] Arc by center, start and end points>>||anchor="Arc by center, start and end points"]]
325 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140997678-883.png]] Arc by 3 points>>||anchor="Arc by 3 points"]]
326 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140991199-574.png]] Arc by start, end point and tangent>>||anchor="Arc by start, end point and tangent"]]
327 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140968882-672.png]] Line by selection>>||anchor="Line by selection"]]
328 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width: 305px;" %)[[image:1583142114275-158.png]] [[(% style="background-color:transparent" %)**Surface temperature **(%%)**variation load**>>doc:.Thermal load (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:361px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]] [[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:192px" %)Reference region|(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141509174-936.png]] Rectangular>>||anchor="Rectangular"]]
329 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141515668-271.png]] Circular>>||anchor="Circular"]]
330 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141521736-476.png]] Polygonal>>||anchor="Polygonal"]]
331 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141534418-234.png]] Pick lines>>||anchor="Pick lines"]]
332 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141527310-477.png]] Pick existing region>>||anchor="Pick existing region"]]
333 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width: 305px;" %)[[image:1583142212560-571.png]] [[Line stress load>>doc:.Initial internal load (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:361px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:192px" %)Reference line|(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140952621-686.png]] Straight line>>||anchor="Straight line"]]
334 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140983881-948.png]] Arc by center, start and end points>>||anchor="Arc by center, start and end points"]]
335 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140997678-883.png]] Arc by 3 points>>||anchor="Arc by 3 points"]]
336 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140991199-574.png]] Arc by start, end point and tangent>>||anchor="Arc by start, end point and tangent"]]
337 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140968882-672.png]] Line by selection>>||anchor="Line by selection"]]
338 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width: 305px;" %)[[image:1583142271831-681.png]] [[**Surface stress load**>>doc:.Initial internal load (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:361px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]] [[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:192px" %)Reference region|(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141509174-936.png]] Rectangular>>||anchor="Rectangular"]]
339 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141515668-271.png]] Circular>>||anchor="Circular"]]
340 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141521736-476.png]] Polygonal>>||anchor="Polygonal"]]
341 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141534418-234.png]] Pick lines>>||anchor="Pick lines"]]
342 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141527310-477.png]] Pick existing region>>||anchor="Pick existing region"]]
343 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" style="width: 305px;" %)[[image:1583142342719-133.png]] [[(% style="background-color:transparent" %)**Point support **(%%)**motion load**>>doc:.Support motion (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" style="width:361px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]] [[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" style="width:192px" %)Reference point|(% style="width:282px" %)[[image:1583140879982-176.png]] Edit point (give an insertion point)
344 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140892256-993.png]] Select point>>||anchor="Select point"]]
345 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width: 305px;" %)[[image:1583142410994-806.png]] [[(% style="background-color:transparent" %)**Line support **(%%)**motion load**>>doc:.Support motion (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:361px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:192px" %)Reference line|(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140952621-686.png]] Straight line>>||anchor="Straight line"]]
346 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140983881-948.png]] Arc by center, start and end points>>||anchor="Arc by center, start and end points"]]
347 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140997678-883.png]] Arc by 3 points>>||anchor="Arc by 3 points"]]
348 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140991199-574.png]] Arc by start, end point and tangent>>||anchor="Arc by start, end point and tangent"]]
349 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583140968882-672.png]] Line by selection>>||anchor="Line by selection"]]
350 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width: 305px;" %)[[image:1583142479865-236.png]] [[(% style="background-color:transparent" %)**Surface support **(%%)**motion load**>>doc:.Support motion (Load).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:361px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="5" style="width:192px" %)Reference region|(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141509174-936.png]] Rectangular>>||anchor="Rectangular"]]
351 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141515668-271.png]] Circular>>||anchor="Circular"]]
352 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141521736-476.png]] Polygonal>>||anchor="Polygonal"]]
353 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141534418-234.png]] Pick lines>>||anchor="Pick lines"]]
354 |(% style="width:282px" %)[[[[image:1583141527310-477.png]] Pick existing region>>||anchor="Pick existing region"]]
355
356 Table: Loads and their geometry definition
357
358 (% border="0" %)
359 |(% style="width:104px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:1905px" %)If you define a load that does not act on a structural element, a warning message appears during the calculation. By continuing the calculation the program will ignore the load that isn't applied on a structure.
360
361 (% border="0" %)
362 |(% style="width:78px" %)[[image:1582804930808-349.png]]|(% style="width:1412px" %)(((
363 It follows from the previous fact, that if the documentation does not need “perfect geometry” for loads in some cases, you can spare time with neglecting some editing steps.
364
365 [[image:1583143723648-567.png]]
366 )))
367
368 (% border="0" %)
369 |(% style="width:104px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:1905px" %)The units of the loads can be set at the **Settings > Units**.
370
371 == {{id name="Straight line"/}}Straight line ==
372
373 Icon: [[image:1583144724612-900.png]]
374
375 The steps of a straight line definition:
376
377 1. Define the start point of the line by giving coordinates or mouse-clicking.
378 1. Define the end point of the line by giving coordinates or mouse-clicking.
379
380 [[image:1583144775756-280.png]]
381
382 Figure: Some examples for defining line-type loads with Straight line
383
384 (% border="0" %)
385 |(% style="width:104px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:1905px" %)(((
386 In 3D modules, the “curved” walls are modeled as planar shells instead of curved ones, so their base lines are straight segments and not real arcs. So, if you would like to place line loads on the reference contour of 3D walls, use the //Straight// or the //Line by selection// tool instead of one of the arc definition tools (see later). Otherwise, the misplaced load will not be taken into consideration in calculations.
387
388 [[image:1583144926016-511.png]]
389
390 Figure: Incorrect and correct ways to define line-type loads on “curved” wall edges in the 3D modules
391 )))
392
393 == {{id name="Arc by center, start and end points"/}}**Arc by center, start and end points** ==
394
395 Icon: [[image:1583145030918-575.png]]
396
397 The steps of an arc definition with its center, start and end points:
398
399 1. Define the center point of the arc by giving coordinates or [[image:1583145243508-500.png]] mouse-clicking.
400
401 [[image:1582804930808-349.png]]** **Use the [[image:1583145332555-528.png]] **Center Object Snap** tool, if you would like to define the center point of the line load in another center point of an arc. (See the next figure, where the (1*) step means that the center point of the curved slab edge is selected for the load’s center point.)
402
403 (% start="2" %)
404 1. Define the start point of the arc by giving coordinates or [[image:1583145275551-669.png]] mouse-clicking.
405 1. Set the drawing direction (clockwise or counterclockwise) with [[image:1583145307147-499.png]] mouse-clicking. Define the end point of the arc by giving coordinates or [[image:1583145243508-500.png]] mouse-clicking, or set the central angle (4.) by giving its value. Circle can be defined by angle 360°.
406
407 [[image:1583145407569-752.png]]
408
409 Figure: An example for defining line-type loads with Arc by center, start and end points
410
411 [[image:1583145442726-798.png]]
412
413 Figure: Drawing direction and angle definition
414
415 == {{id name="Arc by 3 points"/}}**Arc by 3 points** ==
416
417 Icon: [[image:1583145485703-775.png]]
418
419 1. Define the start point of the arc by giving coordinates or [[image:1583145275551-669.png]] mouse-clicking.
420 1. Define the end point of the arc by giving coordinates or [[image:1583145275551-669.png]] mouse-clicking.
421 1. Define the third, peripheral point of the arc by giving coordinates or [[image:1583145275551-669.png]] mouse-clicking.
422
423 [[image:1583146576104-589.png]]
424
425 Figure: Some examples for defining curved line load with Arc by 3 points
426
427 == {{id name="Arc by start, end point and tangent"/}}**Arc by start, end point and tangent** ==
428
429 **Icon: **[[image:1583147396127-962.png]]
430
431 The steps of an arc definition with its start, end point and tangent:
432
433 1. Define the start point of the arc by giving coordinates or [[image:1583146645780-315.png]] mouse-clicking.
434 1. Define the end point of the arc by giving coordinates or [[image:1583146646842-719.png]] mouse-clicking.
435 1. Set the tangent side with [[image:1583146657201-812.png]] mouse-clicking. Define the tangent direction from the start point with a third point (e.g. a point on a tangentially connected line) by giving coordinates or [[image:1583146648506-357.png]] clicking.
436
437 [[image:1583146718385-148.png]]
438
439 Figure: Definition of a curved line load tangent to a beam
440
441 [[image:1583146742806-174.png]]
442
443 Figure: Although same definition points are defined, the tangent side is different
444
445 == {{id name="Select point"/}}**Select point / {{id name="Line by selection"/}}Line by selection / {{id name="Pick existing region"/}}Pick existing region** ==
446
447 Icon: [[image:1583146794913-847.png]]
448
449 * **Point-type loads**: select drawing points or **point supports** (in case of //Point support motion load//) with one of the **selection modes**.
450 * **Line-type loads**: select drawing lines, reference line of **1D member structural elements**, region (drawing or **structural object**) edges or line supports (in case of //Line support motion load//) with one of the **selection modes**. The length of the loads’ action lines will be equal to the selected line elements.
451 * **Surface-type loads**: select drawing regions, drawing solid surfaces, **Planar objects// //**or surface supports (in case of //Surface support motion load//) with one of the **selection modes**. The size of the loads’ action surface will be equal to the selected region elements.
452
453 (% border="0" %)
454 |(% style="width:78px" %)[[image:1582804930808-349.png]]|(% style="width:1412px" %)(((
455 Because only the loads/load parts located on structural elements will be considered in calculations, these “definition by selection” modes are the easiest technique to define loads with perfect accuracy.
456
457 [[image:1583146896396-231.png]]
458
459 Figure: Examples for defining line-type loads by selecting beams
460
461 [[image:1583146950583-123.png]]
462
463 Figure: Adding line loads to the members (beams) of a frame structure
464
465 [[image:1583146964769-509.png]]
466
467 Figure: Defining line loads on structural element edges
468 )))
469
470 (% border="0" %)
471 |(% style="width:104px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:1905px" %)(((
472 In 3D modules, the “curved” walls are modeled as planar shells instead of curved ones, so their base lines are straight segments and not real arcs. So, if you would like to place line loads on the reference contour of 3D walls, use the //Line by selection// or the **Straight** tool instead of one of the arc definition tools. Otherwise, the misplaced load will not be taken into consideration in calculations.
473 )))
474
475 [[image:1583147059012-688.png]]
476
477 Figure: Defining line loads on structural element edges
478
479 (% border="0" %)
480 |(% style="width:78px" %)[[image:1582804930808-349.png]]|(% style="width:1412px" %)With //Pick existing region//, surface loads can be easily place on 3D shell elements (plates and walls) or drawing solid surfaces (defined by the //Draw > Solid// command).
481
482 (% border="0" %)
483 |(% style="width:104px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:1905px" %)(((
484 Point/Line/Surface support motion loads will be considered in the calculations, if they are placed into supports, so it is recommended to select the reference point/line/surface of previously defined supports in case of motion load definition.
485
486 [[image:1583147779191-747.png]]
487
488 Figure: Defining motion loads in supports
489 )))
490
491 == {{id name="Rectangular"/}}Rectangular ==
492
493 Icon: [[image:1583147809318-391.png]]
494
495 1. Define the point of the first corner by giving coordinates or mouse-clicking.
496 1. Define the point of the end corner by giving coordinates or mouse-clicking.
497
498 [[image:1583147830272-277.png]]
499
500 Figure: Defining a rectangular surface-type load
501
502 (% border="0" %)
503 |(% style="width:78px" %)[[image:1582804930808-349.png]]|(% style="width:1412px" %)The geometry of rectangular regions as well as other (later mentioned) region shapes can be edited by the **Modify region > Split region** tool and other editing tools (//Edit// menu). Also the [[**Hole**>>||anchor="Holes in Surface Loads"]] tool of surface loads’ definition command can be used to edit the reference regions.
504
505 == {{id name="Circular"/}}**Circular** ==
506
507 Icon: [[image:1583147924445-816.png]]
508
509 The steps of a circular region definition:
510
511 1. Define the center point by giving coordinates or mouse-clicking.
512 1. Define the radius by giving its value or a point on the circle (with coordinates or mouse-clicking).
513
514 [[image:1583148009184-828.png]]
515
516 Figure: Defining circular surface loads on a plate above columns and terrace part
517
518 == {{id name="Polygonal"/}}**Polygonal** ==
519
520 Icon: [[image:1583148058025-889.png]]
521
522 1. Define the points of the polygon vertexes by giving coordinates or [[image:1583148080555-587.png]] mouse-clicking.
523 1. Close the polygon with [[image:1583148087772-213.png]] mouse-clicking or [[image:1583148096849-693.png]] key.
524
525 [[image:1583148105513-741.png]]
526
527 Figure: Defining polygonal surface load
528
529 == {{id name="Pick lines"/}}Pick lines ==
530
531 Icon: [[image:1583148170333-757.png]]
532
533 With this method, surface-type loads can be placed on **closed** **contours** defined by
534
535 * previously defined drawing lines,
536 * the edges of a previous defined drawing region, a plate, a wall (only in 3D modules) or surface support, or
537 * imported (DWG/DXF) drawing lines that can be used as sketches of surface load shapes.
538
539 It is a one-click definition mode: select a closed contour defines the requested shape of the surface load with mouse-clicking.
540
541 [[image:1583148267775-594.png]]
542
543 Figure: Defining surface loads by using close contours
544
545 In case of line junctions, more than one line/edge has to be selected to make clear the continuity of the requested closed contour.
546
547 [[image:1583152769022-105.png]]
548
549 Figure: Selection of more lines to define the right path for the closed shape
550
551 = {{id name="Holes in Surface Loads"/}}{{id name="“Holes” in Surface Loads"/}}“Holes” in Surface Loads =
552
553 Icon: [[image:1583232589170-607.png]]
554
555 Holes and cuttings can be added to surface loads with the //Hole// tool. The following geometries can be used for holes:
556
557 The steps of a hole definition:
558
559 1. Select the surface load with mouse-clicking. Clicking a region places the UCS into the region plane, so giving hole coordinates needs only X and Y values from the UCS origin.
560 1. Define the geometry of the hole or cutting with one of the following geometry modes:
561 [[[[image:1583236043184-342.png]] Rectangular>>||anchor="Rectangular"]]
562 [[[[image:1583236052468-668.png]] Circular>>||anchor="Circular"]]
563 [[[[image:1583236069382-317.png]] Polygonal>>||anchor="Polygonal"]]
564 [[[[image:1583236081177-406.png]] Pick lines>>||anchor="Pick lines"]]
565
566 [[image:1583236213184-303.png]]
567
568 Figure: Editing a surface load (previously defined by Pick existing region) with the Hole tools
569
570 Holes can be easily copy inside a surface load with the Copy command// //(//Modify// menu). To set the distances/new positions, the UCS has to be in the plane of the host region(s).
571
572 = {{id name="Load assignment"/}}Load assignment =
573
574 Force loads (point load, line load and surface load) can be assigned to every type of structural elements in order to make the possible modifications (e.g. moving of a structure with loads ).
575
576 == Assign new load to an object ==
577
578 A new load can be assigned to a structural element using Assign to structure [[image:1583238438890-760.png]] option, as the following picture shows.
579
580 Load that is assigned to a structural element is shown in green color and it receives analytical ID of an element that it is assigned to. Now, if the structural element is moved, the load will follow the modification.
581
582 [[image:1583238461244-690.png]]
583
584 == Assign existing load to an object ==
585
586 A previously defined load can be assigned to a structural element using **Assign loads to structure** command. This feature allows to decide, which structural element a load acts on. This is useful, if en element is placed at the border of two or more connected structural elements.
587
588 [[image:1583238490745-910.png]]
589
590 [[image:1583238480374-331.png]] The following table shows an example of how important the correct load assignment is, and that is can have significant effect on the results. In the left picture the concentrated moment is assigned to the beam with the fixed end (B.5.1). In the middle picture the moment is assigned to the beam with the hinged end (B.7.1). In the right picture the load is not assigned to any of the structural elements. Below one can see the bending moment diagrams associated with the different load assignment scenarios.
591
592
593 [[image:1583238512686-835.png]]
594
595 = {{id name="Construction stages"/}}Construction stages =
596
597 The loads can be assigned to construction stages in Loads/Construction stages.
598
599 (% class="box infomessage" %)
600 (((
601 For further information see:
602 • [[Structure definition of Construction stages>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Construction stages (Geometry).WebHome]].
603 • [[Load definitions for Construction stages>>doc:||anchor="Construction stages"]]
604 • [[Analysis for Construction stages>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Analysis.WebHome||anchor="Analysis for Construction stages"]]
605 )))
606
607 [[image:1583238577156-915.png]]
608
609
610 Columns in the table mean the following:
611
612 * //No//: Number of the stage
613 * //Stage description//: Name of storey which is built in the stage
614 * //Activated load cases//: Activated load cases for the stage
615 * //Partitioning//:
616 This defines each load from the load cases how it is activated between the following stages.
617 ** //only in this stage//: Load cases activated in the construction stage will act only in this stage.(((
618 |(% style="width:105px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:1305px" %)Remaining loads from this load case will not activated in other stages.
619
620 [[image:1583238745267-346.png]]
621 )))
622 ** //from this stage on//: Load cases activated in the construction stage will act in this and the later stages – loads that act on the storeys below this storey will also act in this stage
623 [[image:1583238786142-531.png]]
624 ** //shifted from first stage//: Load cases activated in the construction stage will act on this and the later stage - loads that act on the first storey will act in this stage, loads on second storey will act in the next stage, etc. (e.g.: covers)
625 [[image:1583238919421-750.png]]
626
627 It’s possible to add any construction stage to any load combination with the following limtations :
628
629 * Only one construction stage is allowed in one combination.
630 * Cannot combine a construction stage and a load case which is already activated in a construction stage
631 * The fire and/or seismic load cases can be combined with only the final construction stage
632
633 For load groups only the final construction stage can be added to.
634
635 (% border="0" %)
636 |(% style="width:78px" %)[[image:1582804930808-349.png]]|(% style="width:1412px" %)The construction stages automatically follow all storey modifications.
637
638 User can start the construction stage calculation at Analysis/Calculation/Construction stages. There is two calculation method, so called //Incremental “Tracking” method// and //“Ghost” structure method.//
639
640 [[image:1583240424676-827.png]]
641
642 When incremental method is chosen, the model is built stage-by-stage. In case of “ghost” structure method the full structure is in the calculation, but stiffness of those structural parts which aren’t in the specific stage is highly reduced.
643
644 //Incremental “Tracking” method//
645
646
647 [[image:1583240465001-908.png]]
648
649 //“Ghost” structure method//
650
651 [[image:1583240480575-835.png]]
652
653
654 The construction stage results can be found in the New results/Analysis/Construction stages.
655
656 For every stage result the method name and the displayed construction stage (e.g. CS.1 Storey 1) appears in the information panel.
657
658 Adding any new Construction stage result will open a "Construction stages" (result-display) tool to make easier the navigation between the stage results and to animate the Construction process if it is needed.
659
660 [[image:1583240503413-666.png]]
661
662 It’s also possible to choose the construction stage in detailed results.
663
664 [[image:1583240560949-310.png]]
665
666 The equilibrium dialog contains the construction stages, too.
667
668 [[image:1583240574460-892.png]]
669
670 It’s possible to list the construction stages result, which can be found under Analysis/Construction stages.
671
672 [[image:1583240589007-427.png]]
673
674 = {{id name="Load cases"/}}Load cases =
675
676 ​​
677
678 (% border="1" style="margin-left:auto; width:291px" %)
679 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:173px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Property**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:115px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Value**
680 |(% style="width:173px" %)Default Short Command|(% style="text-align:center; width:115px" %)LCASE
681 |(% style="width:173px" %)Icon|(% style="text-align:center; width:115px" %)[[image:1583241810962-247.png]]
682
683 Loads in FEM-Design are represented with //Load cases//. A Load case has a name and physically contains one or more load objects.
684
685 Special loads (invisible loads) like dead load, shrinkage and seismic effect can only defined with Load cases. For timber elements [[**duration classes**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Timber (Material).WebHome]] can be set with the //Load cases //command.
686
687 Although a Load case can be assigned later to loads, the first recommended step of load definition is the load case classification (load case list).
688
689 [[image:1583241800864-156.png]]
690
691 **Definition steps**
692
693 1. Start [[image:1583241810962-247.png]] //Load cases// command from [[image:1583241820523-504.png]] tabmenu.
694 1. Define Load case name in the //Name// column.
695 1. Set the //Type// of the new load case:(((
696 (% border="1" style="width:739px" %)
697 |= |=(% style="width: 122px;" %)Type|=(% style="width: 364px;" %)Modules where available
698 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" %)[[image:1583241895677-370.png]]|(% style="width:122px" %)Ordinary|(% style="width:364px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]] [[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]
699 |(% style="width:122px" %)[[+Dead load>>doc:.Structural dead load (Load).WebHome]]|(% style="width:364px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]] [[image:1582555973562-928.png]] [[image:1582557800048-361.png]]
700 |(% style="width:122px" %)[[+Shrinkage>>doc:.Shrinkage (Load).WebHome]]|(% style="width:364px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]] [[image:1582555877428-975.png]] [[image:1582555973562-928.png]]
701 |(% style="width:122px" %)[[+Seismic>>doc:.Seismic load (Load).WebHome]]...|(% style="width:364px" %)[[image:1582554329138-224.png]] [[image:1582554910943-252.png]]
702
703 Table: Load case types by FEM-Design modules
704
705 * “//Ordinary//” means that no additional effect will be assigned to the load case
706 * “[[//+Structural Dead load//>>doc:.Structural dead load (Load).WebHome]]” means that the weight of all structural elements, //“+Soil Dead load”// means the weight of soil, which is calculated automatically, will be assigned to the load case as an invisible load. So, a “Dead load”-type load case contains automatic dead-load and can contain further manually defined loads (e.g. “dead load” of the non-load-bearing (non-core) parts of a composite slab).
707
708 |(% style="width:113px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:1297px" %)Because “+ Structural Dead load” and “+Soil Dead load” type includes the dead load (calculated from the geometry and material) of all structural elements, define only one dead load type load case in one project. If you define more than one “+ Structural Dead load” and “+Soil Dead load” type load cases never group them in the same **Load combination**!
709 \\In all modules automatic dead load works in the global Z direction, except for the [[image:1583242142088-458.png]] //Wall// and [[image:1583242152109-946.png]] //Plane Strain //modules, where the dead load direction is parallel with the global Y.
710
711 * "//+Shrinkage//” means that free [[**shrinkage strain**>>doc:.Shrinkage (Load).WebHome]] behavior will be considered as a load effect in concrete design. The shrinkage strain value can be set at the material properties of concrete structural elements.
712 * “//+Seismic…//” means that sway and torsional effect components calculated from [[**Seismic calculations**>>doc:.Seismic load (Load).WebHome]] will be considered as a load effect in analysis and design calculations.
713 )))
714 1. In case of //Timber design// only, set a load-duration class for a load case according to the regulations of Eurocode 5 (EN 1995-1-1:2004). The load-duration classes are characterized by the effect of constant load acting for a certain period of time in the life of the structure. For a variable action the appropriate class shall be determined on the basis of an estimate of the typical variation of the load with time. Actions shall be assigned to one of the load-duration classes given for strength and stiffness calculations.(((
715 (% border="1" %)
716 |=(% scope="row" style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203);" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Load-duration class|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203);" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Order of accumulated duration of characteristic load|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203);" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Examples of loading
717 |=Permanent|More than 10 years|Dead load
718 |=Long-term|6 months – 10 years|Storage
719 |=Medium-term|1 week – 6 months|Imposed floor load, snow
720 |=Short-term|less than one week|Snow, wind
721 |=Instantaneous| |Wind, accidental load
722
723 Table: Load-duration classes and examples of load-duration assignment (EN 1995-1-1:2004)
724
725
726 (% border="0" %)
727 |(% style="width:102px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:1348px" %)Since climatic loads (snow, wind) vary between countries, the assignment of load-duration classes may be specified in the National annex.
728 )))
729
730 Optional steps:
731
732 (% start="5" %)
733 1. New load case can be inserted to the Load case list in the required row position with //Insert load case//. Just click in the //Name// field you would like to insert the new load case and press the //Insert load case //button. In the pop-up dialog, set the name, the type and the duration class of the new load case.
734 1. Load cases can be removed from the Load case list with //Delete load case//. Just click a field of the load case you would like to delete and press the //Delete load case// button.
735 1. The load case list can be set as default for next project by clicking the //Save as default //button.
736
737 After finishing the load case definition, a load case can be assigned to a load in two modes: by choosing a case directly from the [[image:1583242581837-399.png]] tabmenu (drop-down list) or in the //Default settings //dialog of the current load command.
738
739 [[image:1583242615187-559.png]]
740
741 Figure: Load case selection for load objects
742
743 A color is assigned to a load case after its definition. That color represents the color appearance of the loads included in a load case. The default load case color is red, but you can set different colors by load cases at the **layer settings**.
744
745 [[image:1583242669504-343.png]]
746
747 Figure: The color-system of Load cases represents the load appearance
748
749 == **Moving load cases** ==
750
751 With defining a **[[Moving load>>doc:.Moving load (Load).WebHome]] **special load cases are created, which are displayed with blue text and can not be deleted in the Load cases dialog.
752
753 [[image:1583242717161-317.png]]
754
755 Figure: Moving load cases
756
757 = Predefined Load Values =
758
759 You can browse from predefined intensity values when clicking on the [[image:1584007305210-126.png]] button of the Surface load command’s tool palette. Just select a value from the drop-down list and it will be added in the proper //q //field.
760
761 (% style="text-align:center" %)
762 [[image:1584007287111-771.png]]
763
764 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
765 Figure: Predefined intensity value added to q field (Surface load)
766
767 == Load Display Settings ==
768
769 The display properties of the loads can be set at the //Settings > All… > Display > Load//.
770
771 The available options depend on the current FEM-Design module.
772
773 [[image:1584007697297-791.png]]
774
775 Figure: Settings options affect on the appearance of the loads
776
777 * **Display label**
778 The load values can be displayed on the screen in Wireframe display mode. The default font size and style can be set at //Settings > Text// settings.
779 [[image:1584008376966-518.png]]
780 Figure: Load labels displayed according to Text settings(((
781 (% style="width:540px" %)
782 |(% style="width:85px" %)(% aria-label="1582804930808-349.png image widget" contenteditable="false" role="region" tabindex="-1" %)[[image:1582804930808-349.png||data-widget="image"]]|(% style="width:452px" %)The position of the load labels can be modified with //Edit > Move//.
783 )))
784 * **Display proportionally**
785 By default, this option is inactive. That means all loads are displayed according the //Size// [m] set by load types. So, for example, point loads having different force values are displayed with same size arrow symbols with the height set by //Size//.
786 Activating the //Display proportionally// option the loads will be displayed with their values multiplied with the //Scale// value set by load types. So, if the //Scale// value is 1.0 for all load types, the loads are displayed with their real values converted to meter units. For example, 5kN point force is displayed 5m-height symbol in case of 1.0 //Scale// value; but modifying the Scale value to 2.0 displays the 5kN force with 10m-height symbol.
787 [[image:1584008508180-799.png]]
788 Figure: Examples for different Size/Scale values and Display proportionally option
789
790 * **Hatch distance**
791 Hatch distance sets the density of the hatches of the surface loads’ action plane.
792
793 === **Layer, color and pen width** ===
794
795 All loads are placed (and grouped) on Object layers according to their host load case. Color and pen width are assigned to each load case. After defining a load case the program automatically set red color for it by default. The default color together with the pen width of the load symbol contours can be modified with the //Color// and //Pen// tools.
796
797 By default, the layer of the current load case is active and the others are hidden. Of course, you can activate, hide or protect load case layers as you want.
798
799 (% style="text-align:center" %)
800 [[image:1584081643905-652.png]]
801
802 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
803 Figure: Layer-system of loads (load cases)
804
805 == Editing Loads ==
806
807 **Copying Loads**
808
809 The //Copy load case// command (//Loads// menu) gives an easy way to copy all defined loads of a load case (//Source//) into another load case (//Destination//). With the //Multiplication factor //the values of copied loads can be increased or decreased proportionately.
810
811 [[image:1584081673001-426.png]]
812
813 Figure: Copying loads of a load case to another one
814
815 Loads can be copied inside a load case with the Copy command (//Modify// menu).
816
817 **Modifying Load Values**
818
819 (% border="1" style="margin-left:auto; width:322px" %)
820 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:179px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Property**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:140px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Value**
821 |(% style="width:179px" %)Default Short Command|(% style="text-align:center; width:140px" %)LVAL
822 |(% style="width:179px" %)Icon|(% style="text-align:center; width:140px" %)[[image:1584081691095-938.png]]
823
824 Load properties (such as the load values) can be easily modified with the [[image:1584081684839-355.png]] //Properties// tool of the proper load definition command.
825
826 With the [[image:1584081691095-938.png]] //Multiply load// command, you can modify values of selected loads with a given multiple factor.
827
828 **Modifying Load Directions**
829
830 Depending on the current FEM-Design module, the direction of predefined loads can be modified with the Change direction, Mirror and Rotate command of the //Edit// menu.
831
832 **Modifying Load Positions**
833
834 The position of Loads can be modified with the Move command (//Modify// menu).
835
836 **Modifying the Geometries of Action Lines and Surfaces**
837
838 The editing tools valid for region elements can be used to modify the geometry of surface loads’ action plane. These //Edit// menu commands are for example Modify region, Stretch, Curve, Elbow, Scale, Chamfer, Fillet etc. The [[image:1584081712028-812.png]] Hole tool of surface load commands can also be used to cut parts from a surface load.
839
840 The editing tools valid for lines and arcs can be used to modify the geometry of line loads’ action line. These //Edit// menu commands are for example Stretch, Curve, Elbow, Split, Trim, Extend, Break etc.
841
842 == Combination of Loads/Load cases ==
843
844 **//Load cases//** (and so their load contents) can be combined manually with given load factor multipliers (//Load Combination//) or the program finds the most unfavorable combinations of the load cases grouped in different types (permanent, temporary, accidental etc.).
845
846 === Load Group ===
847
848 [[image:1584081753997-661.png]] Load cases can be grouped (//Load groups// command) by their action type (permanent, temporary, accidental etc.). The program calculates (if required) the critical values of analysis and design results from the most unfavorable combinations of “grouped” load cases.
849
850 (% style="width:669px" %)
851 |(% style="width:100px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:566px" %)Non-linear calculations such as 2^^nd^^ order analysis, stability and cracked-section analysis cannot be done for load groups.
852
853 There is an option for temporary load groups to choose predefined ψ,,0,,, ψ,,1,, and ψ,,2,, values.
854
855 [[image:1584081803157-570.png]]
856
857 Figure: Load group definition
858
859 Temporary load groups has an option to ignore in SLS combinations in Load group maximum results and in Generating load combinations by load groups.
860
861 [[image:1584081811879-326.png]]
862
863
864 In Load groups dialog the User has the opportunity to choose one of the combination methods offered by Eurocode 0. Two methods of determining the combination of actions are allowed for the STR Ultimate Limit States.
865
866 [[image:1584081821535-639.png]]
867
868 The first approach is to use expression 6.10.
869
870 [[image:1584081839365-670.png]]
871
872 The second approach is to use the more onerous of expressions 6.10.a and 6.10.b.
873
874 [[image:1584081855815-566.png]]
875
876 The subtle attraction of this pair of expression derives from two important changes from 6.10.:
877
878 The application of the ψ,,0,, factor to the leading variable action in expression 6.10.a (not applied in 6.10.)
879
880 The introduction of a reduction factor ξ applied to the permanent actions in expression 6.10.b (not applied in 6.10.)
881
882 It is possible to deactivate the //Potentially leading load cases// check box for a //Temporary //load group. This way the number of generated load combinations can be reduced.
883
884 (% style="width:540px" %)
885 |(% style="width:85px" %)(% aria-label="1582804930808-349.png image widget" contenteditable="false" role="region" tabindex="-1" %)[[image:1582804930808-349.png||data-widget="image"]]|(% style="width:452px" %)The whole expressions appear on the screen as the cursor is moved on the name of the combination method.
886
887 **Load group and Load case definition functions** are shown on the right side of the //Load groups// dialog box.
888
889 [[image:1584081868000-560.png]]
890
891 Figure: Load group definition functions
892
893 Under //Load group// group, there are three functions:
894
895 * **Insert**
896 With this function the user can add a new //Load group//. After clicking on Insert button, the parameters can be set in the dialog.
897 * **Delete**
898 This function deletes a //Load group//.
899 * **Delete all**
900 This function deletes all defined load groups.
901
902 Under //Load case// group, there are three functions:
903
904 * **Insert**
905 An existing load case can be inserted to a load group.
906 * **New**
907 The user has the opportunity to define load cases in //Load group//s dialog. After defining a load case in this dialog, the new load case will be added to //Load case// list (the user can see it in Load cases dialog).
908 [[image:1584081929184-653.png]]
909 Figure: Load case definition in Load groups dialog
910
911 * **Remove**
912 This function removes the selected load case from the current load group.
913
914 **Definition steps of new load groups**
915
916 1. Click on an empty //Load group// cell. Define the name of the new load group and set its type. Set the required factors of the group according to the selected type and the applied standard.
917 1. Add a load case to the group by selecting it from the //Included load cases// drop-down list. To add more than one cases to a group, use the //Insert case(s)// option.(((
918 (% style="width:669px" %)
919 |(% style="width:100px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:566px" %)“//Permanent//”-type load groups defined will be present in all load combinations.
920
921 If more than one load cases are assigned to a load group, they will never be simultaneously present!  So, it is recommended to set permanent-type load cases (e.g. automatic dead-load, roof weight etc.) in own “//Permanent//”-type groups to avoid the loss one of them.
922 )))
923 1. Define the next load group by repeating the previous steps.
924
925 **Optional steps**
926
927 (% start="4" %)
928 1. A load group can be edited by double clicking on its //Load group// cell.
929 1. The load group list can be set as the default group set for the next and later projects by clicking on //Save as default// option.
930
931 [[image:1584082026107-585.png]] Let’s see an example, how partial loading of slab can be modeled with load groups. Just place the load cases represented the loading statuses into one “//Temporary//”-type load group.
932
933 [[image:1584082032236-330.png]]
934
935 Figure: Partial loading of a slab
936
937 === Load Combination ===
938
939 [[image:1584082041536-534.png]] Load combination lets you combine load cases by multiplying them with given load factors.
940
941 Two main types of load combinations can be defined: load combinations for **ultimate (U)** and for **serviceability (S) limit state**. Although [[Analysis>>path:#_Analysis]] calculations can be done for both types, the recommended functions of the types are the followings:
942
943 * **Ultimate limit state-type load combination (U)**
944 Define U-type load combinations for strength and stability calculations. All design calculations (except for crack width of RC Design) are done only for U combinations.
945 * **Ultimate limit state-type (accidental) load combination (Ua)**
946 This type of load combination is like Ultimate limit state, but the difference is in the safety factors.
947 * **Ultimate limit state-type (seismic) load combination (Us)**
948 This type of load combination is like Ultimate limit state, but the difference is in the safety factors.
949 * **Serviceability limit state-type load combination, characteristic (Sc)**
950 Define Sc-type load combinations to calculate displacement.
951 * **Serviceability limit state-type load combination, frequent (Sf)**
952 This type of load combination is like Serviceability (characteristic) limit state, but the difference is in the safety factors.
953 * **Serviceability limit state-type load combination, quasi permanent (Sq)**
954 Define Sq-type load combinations to calculate RC bars and slab crack width calculation.
955
956 For the different design calculations different SLS load combinations are used:
957
958 * Deflection check: user selectable
959 * Foundation settlement: user selectable
960 * Crack width: Quasi-permanent (S,,q,,)
961
962 (% style="text-align:center" %)
963 [[image:1584082090873-772.png]]
964
965 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
966 Figure: Load combination definition
967
968 **Definition steps of new load combinations**
969
970 1. Type the name of the new combination in the //Name// cell.
971 1. Set the load combination type by choosing Ultimate (U, Ua, Us) or Serviceability (Sc, Sq, Sf) from the //Type// drop-down list.
972 1. Select a load case that you would like to add to the combination from the //Included load cases// drop-down list, which contains all load cases predefined in the current project.
973 1. Type a load factor for the load case chosen in the previous step in the //Factor// cell.
974 1. Repeat the 3^^rd^^ and 4^^th^^ step in the following rows, if you would like to add more than one load cases to the combination.(((
975 (% style="width:540px" %)
976 |(% style="width:85px" %)(% aria-label="1582804930808-349.png image widget" contenteditable="false" role="region" tabindex="-1" %)[[image:1582804930808-349.png||data-widget="image"]]|(% style="width:452px" %)If you would like to add more than one load cases to the current load combination with the same factor in one step, use the //Insert //option of the //Load combinations// group.
977 )))
978 1. Define the next load combination by repeating the previous steps.(((
979 (% style="width:857px" %)
980 |(% style="width:85px" %)(% aria-label="1582804930808-349.png image widget" contenteditable="false" role="region" tabindex="-1" %)[[image:1582804930808-349.png||data-widget="image"]]|(% style="width:769px" %)If you would like to define a load combination with a similar content (load cases with factors) of another one, apply the //Copy comb.// option for the source load combination and define the destination combination by defining a new load combination. //Copy comb.// option can also add a load combination content to another predefined one.
981 )))
982
983 **Optional steps**
984
985 (% start="7" %)
986 1. Load combination can be renamed by typing a new name in its proper //Name //cell.
987 1. Load combinations can automatically be generated from the Load cases assigned to the Load groups, according to Eurocode 1990-Chapter 6.4.3.
988 1*. In Load combination dialog click Generate button.
989 [[image:1584082247737-403.png]]
990 1*. Select load cases from the Load groups.
991 1*. Select Load combination type to generate and their properties (if there is any).(((
992 (% style="width:669px" %)
993 |(% style="width:100px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:566px" %)The selected Load combinations will be generated if there is at least one load group of that type. E.g. if the user wants to generate Accidental load combination, but there is no Accidental Load group, or in that Load group there is no Load case, the program will not create any accidental Load combination.
994 )))
995 1*. Set the General options parameters.
996 1. Another way to manage Load combination(s) and their Load case(s) are listed below:
997 __Load combinations:__
998 1*. **Insert**
999 With this function the user can add a new Load combination. After clicking on Insert button, the parameters can be set in the dialog.
1000 1*. **Copy**
1001 With this function the user can copy an existing combination with load cases and factors.
1002 1*. **Delete**
1003 The user can delete a selected load combination.
1004 1*. **Delete all**
1005 All the load cases can be deleted with Delete all function.
1006 __Load cases:__
1007 1*. **Insert:**
1008 An existing load case can be inserted to a load group with Insert function.
1009 1*. **New:**
1010 The user has the opportunity to define load cases in Load combinations dialog. After defining a load case in this dialog, the new load case will be added to Load case list (the user can see in Load cases dialog).
1011 1*. **Remove:**
1012 This function removes the selected load case from the current load group.
1013
1014 === Load Export/Import via clipboard ===
1015
1016 //Load Export// and //Import// //via clipboard// lets the user easily and quickly modify loads.
1017
1018 [[image:1584082590752-711.png]]
1019
1020 In order to export loads, User has to click to //Export// to send the load information to the clipboard. Then User can paste to Excel or any editor program and modify them.
1021
1022 (% style="width:669px" %)
1023 |(% style="width:100px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:566px" %)Only comments and the load intensities can be modified. We suggest NOT to edit other columns to avoid errors in Importing.
1024
1025 [[image:1584082661520-227.png]]
1026
1027 After changing attributes, User can choose whether to import some. or all of the loads by selecting the desired rows and copying them to clipboard, then in FEM-Design clicking on //Import//.
1028
1029 (% style="width:669px" %)
1030 |(% style="width:100px" %)[[image:1582804849244-917.png]]|(% style="width:566px" %)If the User exported constant surface load, only changing the first intensity value will have effect on the surface load.
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