Modules where available1584945614085-139.png
GeometryStraight, placed in any arbitrary angle but 90° to vertical
Cross-sectionArbitrary concrete, steel, timber, and certain types of composite profiles
MaterialConcrete, steel, timber, composite
End conditionRigid and hinged, or custom defined by Point-point connection
Soil springsSupport springs, Negative shaft friction
Load directionArbitrary in 1584945677287-482.png   
Load typePoint/line load (force and moment), Line support motion
Available analysis resultsDisplacement, stresses, stability and vibration shape in  1584945678822-279.png  
Available design-
Default Short CommandPILE

Table: Pile properties

Definition steps

  1. You need to define the soil first.
  2. Start 1584945696592-873.png  Pile command from 1584945703344-437.png  / Foundation tabmenu and choose 1584945715797-676.png  Define.
  3. Set the properties of the new Pile in 1584947647897-607.png  Default settings:
  • Identifier (General)
    The program automatically generates it, but you can define custom value. Identifier (ID) number can be displayed in model view (Display settings).
  • Rotation (General)
    You can set the direction of the local y axis.
  • Cross-section (Section)
    The section of the pile can be selected from the Section library or you can set a Composite one for it. (Cross-sections)
    1584946284958-716.png 1584946290613-713.png

    The available composite sections for simple pile are the followings:

    1584947770266-690.png 1584947758698-497.png 1584946340104-836.png 1584946348569-742.png
  • Material
    Concrete, steel, timber or composites can be set as material for pile Analysis.
  • End conditions
    On the End conditions tab User can set the top release of the pile, which can be useful in case piles are connected to a foundation slab. The connection can be either fixed or hinged.
  • Support springs (Soil springs)
    In the Soil springs tab you can overwrite the automatically calculated values of any support, such as Lateral/ Vertical line motion springs, Vertical pile tip springs or Vertical plastic limit forces.


  • Bogumił Wrana (2015) Pile load capacity – calculation methods. Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 83-93
  • NAVFAC DM 7.2 (1984): Foundation and Earth Structures, U.S. Department of the Navy
  • Skempton A.W. (1959), Cast-in-situ bored piles in London clay, Geotechnique, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 153–173
  • Qian-qing Zhang, Shu-cai Li, Fa-yun Liang, Min Yang, Qian Zhang (2014) Simplified method for settlement prediction of single pile and pile group using a hyperbolic model. International Journal of Civil Engineering Vol. 12, No. 2, Transaction B: Geotechnical Engineering, pp. 146-159
  • Vesic, A.B. (1963) Beams on Elastic Subgrade and the Winkler’s Hypothesis. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Soil Mechanics, pp. 845-850

  • Negative shaft friction (Soil springs)
    βneg is the factor for negative shaft friction for drained soils (default value is also assumed to 1.0). This load is applied as a linearly variable line load along the pile, and its value can be changed by the modification of the αneg and βneg values (each stratum has one value) together with neutral level:
  • Click Option to open Pile option dialog. Here you can declare the Type of pile or the Surface surcharge (affecting the vertical stresses in case of drained soils), the division length of line supports and can decide the method of the Section perimeter’s calculation.

The feature has some important limitations!

  • Pile model is used only for analysis purpose (displacements, internal forces), geotechnical design calculations are not implemented yet.
  • During the calculations soil must not be modelled as soil element.
  • Negative shaft friction is considered in a load combination only if it includes “Neg. shaft friction” load case, which is generated automatically when a pile is created in the model with non-zero neutral level.
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