Hide last authors
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
2 {{toc/}}
3 {{/box}}
4
5 A model consists of structural objects, **loads** and **finite elements**. This chapter summarizes the definition ways, the properties and the features of the structural objects.
6
7 Depending on the current **FEM-Design Module **(license you have), the available Object types are different. Although the structural objects are real 3 dimensional objects, they are 1D members and 2D planar elements (because of the finite element method) having sectional (thickness, profile etc.) and material properties. So, they can be defined as lines or regions. Some elements like point supports can be defined as points.
8
Fredrik Lagerström 507.1 9 (% class="table-hover" style="width:1120px" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 10 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:173px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Type**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:32px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Icon**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:128px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Modules where available**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:159px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 505.1 11 (% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Definition mode**
12 )))|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:134px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Position**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:113px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Material**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:132px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Profile**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:124px" %)(((
13 (% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Load bearing**
Fredrik Lagerström 506.1 14 )))|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:124px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Default Short Command**
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 15 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Soil**>>Soil (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603814981-709.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602208253-331.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Region|(% style="width:134px" %)Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)SO
16 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Borehole**>>Borehole (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603822261-738.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602210083-549.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Point|(% style="width:134px" %)-|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)BH
17 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Pile**>>Pile (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584945390103-974.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584945396791-858.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Point/Line|(% style="width:134px" %)Vertical|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)PILE
18 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Isolated foundation**>>Isolated foundation (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603829044-457.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602212179-470.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Regular shape/Solid|(% style="width:134px" %)Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Concrete|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)FIS
19 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Wall foundation**>>Wall foundation (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603841098-596.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602219423-925.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Concrete|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)FWL
20 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Foundation slab**>>Foundation slab (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603848256-757.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602217074-327.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Region|(% style="width:134px" %)Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Concrete|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)FSL
21 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Beam**>>Beam (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603859591-112.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 19.2 22 [[image:1584602561989-469.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 23
Fredrik Lagerström 26.2 24 [[image:1584602214397-138.png]] [[image:1584602626305-896.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 402.1 25 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 26 Horizontal
27
28 Arbitrary
Fredrik Lagerström 506.1 29 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)BM
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 30 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Column**>>Column (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603866327-126.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 19.2 31 [[image:1584602559305-131.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 32
Fredrik Lagerström 26.2 33 [[image:1584602222080-774.png]] [[image:1584602621130-909.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 402.1 34 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 35 Point
36
37 Point/Line
Fredrik Lagerström 405.1 38 )))|(% style="width:134px" %)Vertical|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 39 (Support)
40
41 Arbitrary
Fredrik Lagerström 506.1 42 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)CL
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 43 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 412.1 44 [[**Truss member**>>Truss member (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 45 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603873028-793.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602224568-738.png]] [[image:1584602618708-185.png]] |(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Axial|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)TR
46 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 412.1 47 [[**Intermediate section**>>Intermediate section (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 48 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603880617-711.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602226949-495.png]] [[image:1584602617236-838.png]] [[image:1584602544973-878.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Point|(% style="width:134px" %)-|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)ISEC
49 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Apex**>>Apex (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603889506-762.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602240547-944.png]] [[image:1584602623687-545.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 26.2 50 Vertical / Horizontal
Fredrik Lagerström 506.1 51 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)Timber|(% style="width:132px" %)Rectangle|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)APEX
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 52 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Column corbel**>>Column corbel (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603896480-680.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602237211-483.png]] [[image:1584602614748-860.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Point|(% style="width:134px" %)Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)CCOR
53 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Wall corbel**>>Wall corbel (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603901949-632.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584602233922-164.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)WCOR
54 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Plate**>>Plate (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603908879-545.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 19.2 55 [[image:1584602542466-682.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 56
Fredrik Lagerström 19.2 57 [[image:1584602230254-792.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 402.1 58 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Region|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 59 Horizontal
60
61 Arbitrary
Fredrik Lagerström 405.1 62 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Constant / variable thickness|(% style="width:124px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 63 Vertical
64
65 Axial
Fredrik Lagerström 506.1 66 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)PL
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 67 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Wall**>>Wall (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584603917622-954.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 26.2 68 [[image:1584602591139-209.png]]
69
Fredrik Lagerström 43.2 70 [[image:1584603927995-543.png]] [[image:1584603950554-740.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 26.2 71
Fredrik Lagerström 43.2 72 [[image:1584603937205-689.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 402.1 73 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 50.2 74 Line
75
76 Region
77
78 Line
Fredrik Lagerström 405.1 79 )))|(% style="width:134px" %)Vertical|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Constant/ variable thickness|(% style="width:124px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 50.2 80 (Support)
81
82 Planar
83
84 Arbitrary
Fredrik Lagerström 506.1 85 )))|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)WL
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 86 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 412.1 87 [[**Profiled panel**>>Profiled panel (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 88 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584605667677-283.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584604885106-242.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Line/Region|(% style="width:134px" %)Vertical/Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:132px" %)Constant|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)PPR / WPR
89 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Timber panel**>>Timber panel (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584605673548-322.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584604887313-772.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Line/Region|(% style="width:134px" %)Vertical/Horizontal|(% style="width:113px" %)Timber|(% style="width:132px" %)Constant|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)PTM / WTM
90 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 484.1 91 [[**Point support**>>doc:.Point support (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 481.1 92
Fredrik Lagerström 484.1 93 [[**Point support group**>>doc:.Point support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 94 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 504.1 95 [[image:1584606240423-939.png]]
96
97 [[image:1584606251751-657.png]]
98 )))|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 19.2 99 [[image:1584602573981-946.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 100
Fredrik Lagerström 74.2 101 [[image:1584604896073-561.png]] [[image:1584605783100-219.png]] [[image:1584605682460-575.png]] [[image:1584605763415-696.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 402.1 102 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Point|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 50.2 103 Vertical
104
105 Arbitrary
Fredrik Lagerström 506.1 106 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)(((
107 SPT
108
109 SPG
110 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 111 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 484.1 112 [[**Line support**>>doc:.Line support (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 481.1 113
Fredrik Lagerström 484.1 114 [[**Line support group**>>doc:.Line support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 115 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 504.1 116 [[image:1584606257981-662.png]]
117
118 [[image:1584606264758-198.png]]
119 )))|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 69.2 120 [[image:1584605826007-726.png]] [[image:1584605686131-287.png]] [[image:1584605756473-657.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 50.2 121
Fredrik Lagerström 74.2 122 [[image:1584604903979-827.png]] [[image:1584605968077-824.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 402.1 123 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 50.2 124 Vertical
125
126 Arbitrary
Fredrik Lagerström 506.1 127 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)(((
128 SLN
129
130 SLG
131 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 132 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 484.1 133 [[**Surface support group**>>doc:.Surface support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 134 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584606305864-653.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 74.2 135 [[image:1584606015157-801.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 50.2 136
137 [[image:1584604916166-214.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 402.1 138 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Region|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 50.2 139 Vertical
140
141 Arbitrary
Fredrik Lagerström 506.1 142 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)SSF
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 143 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 436.1 144 [[**Point-point connection**>>Point-point connection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 145 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584606312864-571.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 57.2 146 [[image:1584605248316-672.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 50.2 147
Fredrik Lagerström 74.2 148 [[image:1584604936217-115.png]] [[image:1584605980199-738.png]] [[image:1584605692944-870.png]] [[image:1584605747679-418.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 402.1 149 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 50.2 150 Horizontal
151
152 Arbitrary
Fredrik Lagerström 506.1 153 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)CPT
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 154 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 436.1 155 [[**Line-line connection**>>Line-line connection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 156 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584606317523-649.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 57.2 157 [[image:1584605244903-256.png]]
158
Fredrik Lagerström 74.2 159 [[image:1584605273661-849.png]] [[image:1584605994404-800.png]] [[image:1584605723071-700.png]] [[image:1584605741598-931.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 402.1 160 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Lines|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 50.2 161 Horizontal
162
163 Arbitrary
Fredrik Lagerström 506.1 164 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)CLN
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 165 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 412.1 166 [[**Fictitious bar**>>Fictitious bar (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 167 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584606322728-402.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 57.2 168 [[image:1584605251734-513.png]]
169
Fredrik Lagerström 74.2 170 [[image:1584605270193-110.png]] [[image:1584605998857-529.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 402.1 171 )))|(% style="width:159px" %)Line|(% style="width:134px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 50.2 172 Horizontal
173
174 Arbitrary
Fredrik Lagerström 506.1 175 )))|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)FICB
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 176 |(% style="width:173px" %)[[**Shell model**>>Shell model (Geometry)]]|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584606327473-318.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584605268223-162.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Regions|(% style="width:134px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:113px" %)Steel|(% style="width:132px" %)Constant/ variable web height|(% style="width:124px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)
177 |(% style="width:173px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 412.1 178 [[**Fictitious shell**>>Fictitious shell (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 508.1 179 )))|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584606332853-762.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584605266522-828.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %)Regions|(% style="width:134px" %)Arbitrary|(% style="width:113px" %)-|(% style="width:132px" %)-|(% style="width:124px" %)-|(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)FICS
180 |(% style="width:173px" %)**[[Post-tensioned cable (PTC)>>Post-tensioned cable (PTC) (Geometry)]]**|(% style="width:32px" %)[[image:1584969371922-802.png]]|(% style="width:128px" %)[[image:1584969377145-733.png]] [[image:1584969385282-949.png]]|(% style="width:159px" %) |(% style="width:134px" %) |(% style="width:113px" %) |(% style="width:132px" %) |(% style="width:124px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:124px" %)BPTC
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 181
182 Table: Structural Objects and their main properties
183
Fredrik Lagerström 479.1 184 The commands for defining structural objects can be started from the [[[[image:1584606358359-405.png]] **Tabmenu**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Basic concept.WebHome||anchor="HTabmenus"]]. Each command has a **Tool palette** with the customizable element properties (cross-sections, materials, stiffness values etc.) and the definition tools of the element geometry and position (direction).
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 185
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 186 = {{id name="Properties"/}}Properties =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 187
Fredrik Lagerström 86.2 188 //Tool palette// contains all customizable structural properties. The main properties can be set directly in the tool palette and all properties can be set in the dialog opens by clicking on the //Default settings //button. The settings dialog and fields keep the last set property values by element types (beams, columns, plates etc.)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 189
190
Fredrik Lagerström 86.2 191 [[image:1584606450182-329.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 192
193 Figure: Setting part of Tool palette
194
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 195 = {{id name="Cross sections"/}}Cross sections =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 196
197 FEM-Design offers the possibility to add any cross-section type/shape (//Section//) to beams, columns and truss members.
198
Fredrik Lagerström 97.2 199 |[[image:warning.png]]|To avoid design failures of concrete, steel and timber bars (section type and material do not fit), the program checks the section type - **material** compatibility while setting the properties. The program sends an error message when it finds incompatibility definition at closing the settings dialog. But, the so-called **General material** (defined by the user) can be added to each section types.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 200
Fredrik Lagerström 97.2 201 The //Section// tabpage of the settings dialog contains predefined cross-sections. Unique profiles and shapes can be define by their parameters (parametric shapes) in //New> Size //or with the [[image:1584606589609-328.png]] [[**FEM-Design Section Editor**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Section Editor.WebHome]]. The following table sums the available cross-section types.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 202
203 |Type|**Description**|**Section library**|(((
204 **Compatible**
205
206 **material**
207 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 208 |Standard steel profiles|Not editable, built-in steel profiles depending on the applied national code|[[image:1584606669592-168.png]]|Steel (or General)
209 |Often used concrete profiles|Not editable, built-in square, rectangular and circular concrete profiles|[[image:1584606677793-877.png]]|Concrete (or General)
210 |Often used timber profiles|Not editable, built-in square timber profiles|[[image:1584606686142-535.png]]|Timber (or General)
211 |Common parametric concrete shapes|Predefined concrete shapes to create required profiles by defining the shape parameters|[[image:1584606697986-714.png]]|Concrete (or General)
Fredrik Lagerström 97.2 212 |Common parametric rolled steel shapes|Predefined rolled steel shapes to create required profiles by defining the shape parameters|[[image:1584606709941-786.png]]|Steel (or General)
213 |Common parametric cold-formed steel shapes|Predefined cold-formed steel shapes to create required profiles by defining the shape parameters|[[image:1584606717280-131.png]]|Steel (or General)
214 |Common parametric welded steel shapes|Predefined welded steel shapes to create required profiles by defining the shape parameters|[[image:1584606724891-641.png]]|Steel (or General)
215 |Common parametric timber shapes|Predefined timber shapes to create required profiles by defining the shape parameters|[[image:1584606733518-248.png]]|Timber (or General)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 216
217 Table: Section types
218
219 Defining a new (e.g. parametric) section in the settings dialog, the program calculates automatically the parameters need for later analysis and design. Each bar element has a local coordinate-system which y and z axes define the plane of its cross-section.
220
Fredrik Lagerström 98.2 221 (% style="width:1300px" %)
222 |Parameter|(% style="width:559px" %)**Meaning**|(% style="width:482px" %)**Example**
223 |A|(% style="width:559px" %)Area|(% rowspan="28" style="text-align:center; vertical-align:middle; width:482px" %)[[image:1584606874911-332.png]]
224 |P|(% style="width:559px" %)Perimeter
225 |A/P|(% style="width:559px" %)Area/Perimeter
Fredrik Lagerström 400.1 226 |Y,,g,,, Z,,g,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Center of gravity
227 |Y,,s,,, Z,,s,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Shear center position
228 |I,,y,,, I,,z,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Moment of inertia
229 |W,,y,,, W,,z,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Section modulus
230 |e,,z max,,, e,,y max,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Maximum distance of extreme fiber
231 |e,,z min,,, e,,y min,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Minimum distance of extreme fiber
232 |i,,y,,, i,,z,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Radius of inertia
233 |S,,y,,, S,,z,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Maximum statical moment
234 |I,,t,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Torsion moment of inertia
235 |W,,t,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Torsion section modulus
236 |I,,gamma,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Warping parameter
237 |I,,yz,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Centroidal product of inertia
238 |z ,,omega,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Wagner warping parameter
Fredrik Lagerström 98.2 239 |alpha1, alpha2|(% style="width:559px" %)Angle of principal direction
Fredrik Lagerström 400.1 240 |I,,1,,, I,,2,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Principal moment of inertia
241 |W,,1 min,,, W,,2 min,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Principal minimum section modulus
242 |W,,1 max,,, W,,2 max,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Principal maximum section modulus
243 |e,,2 max,,, e,,1 max,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Maximum distance of extreme fiber
244 |e,,2 min,,, e,,1 min,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Minimum distance of extreme fiber
245 |i,,1,,, i,,2,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Radius of principal inertia
246 |S,,1,,, S,,2,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Principal maximum statical moment
247 |S,,o1,,, S,,o2,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Principal statical moment of half area
248 |c,,1,,, c,,2,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Plastic/elastic moment capacity
249 |Rho,,1,,, Rho,,2,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Principal shear factor
250 |z,,2,,, z,,1,,|(% style="width:559px" %)Wagner parameter
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 251
252 Table: Sectional characteristics
253
254 A cross-section is stored in the following tree structure: //group// > //type// > //size//. New library items can be defined or previous ones can be edited (renamed, modified or deleted) by the following settings options.
255
256
Fredrik Lagerström 107.2 257 (% style="text-align:center" %)
258 [[image:1584607167580-291.png]]
259
260 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 261 Figure: Section library structure
262
263 Cross-sections used in the project and defined as parametric profiles are grouped in //Used sections// library, but they are available only in the current project.
264
Fredrik Lagerström 107.2 265 (% style="text-align:center" %)
266 [[image:1584607191209-527.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 267
Fredrik Lagerström 107.2 268 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 269 Figure: “Used sections” library
270
Fredrik Lagerström 107.2 271 |[[image:warning.png]]|**Y**ou can Import and Export the Section Library to share the content of the Library.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 272
Fredrik Lagerström 107.2 273 == **Composite sections** ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 274
275 Composite sections can be set for beams, columns and piles.
276
277 The available composite section types:
278
Fredrik Lagerström 118.2 279 [[image:1584607343173-225.png]] [[image:1584607351751-959.png]] [[image:1584607361511-319.png]] [[image:1584607367112-925.png]] [[image:1584607372070-449.png]] [[image:1584607377559-346.png]] [[image:1584607386386-143.png]] [[image:1584607393225-359.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 280
281 Click //Default settings/Section tab/Composite/New// to open the settings of //Composite sections//.
282
Fredrik Lagerström 118.2 283 [[image:1584607437480-666.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 284
285
Fredrik Lagerström 118.2 286 |[[image:warning.png]]|For the time being only above listed composite sections can be selected, there is no choice to create alternative section.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 287
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 288 = {{id name="Materials"/}}Materials =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 289
290 The //Material// tabpage of the settings dialog contains predefined materials according to the current national standard.
291
292 A model may include mixture of elements with different materials, and analysis can be done for the complete model, but design can be done for elements having proper materials.
293
Fredrik Lagerström 501.1 294 (% style="width:448px" %)
295 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:258px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Material**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:187px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Design**
296 |(% style="width:258px" %)[[Concrete>>Concrete (Material)]]|(% style="width:187px" %)[[**RC design**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.RC Design.WebHome]]
297 |(% style="width:258px" %)[[Steel>>Steel (Material)]]|(% style="width:187px" %)[[**Steel design**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Steel Design.WebHome]]
298 |(% style="width:258px" %)[[Timber>>Timber (Material)]]|(% style="width:187px" %)[[**Timber design**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Timber Design.WebHome]]
299 |(% style="width:258px" %)General|(% style="width:187px" %)- (only for [[analysis>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Analysis.WebHome]])
300 |(% style="width:258px" %)[[Bar steel (Reinforcement)>>Bar steel (Reinforcement) (Material)]]|(% style="width:187px" %)[[**RC design**>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.RC Design.WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 301
Fredrik Lagerström 118.2 302 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 303 Table: Available and design materials
304
305 //Material library// stores the available materials by material type groups. Materials used in the project are grouped in //Used materials// library, but they are available only in the current project.
306
Fredrik Lagerström 118.2 307 (% style="text-align:center" %)
308 [[image:1584607519068-883.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 309
Fredrik Lagerström 118.2 310 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
311 Figure: Material library
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 312
313 Above the standard materials, user can define concrete, steel, timber and general materials. The new materials are also stored in the //Material library //in the proper material type group. To define a new (e.g. concrete) material, select the required material group name (e.g. //Concrete//), click //New// and set the required material properties starting with the material name first.
314
Fredrik Lagerström 118.2 315 (% style="text-align:center" %)
316 [[image:1584607546988-851.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 317
Fredrik Lagerström 118.2 318 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
319 Figure: Material types
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 320
321
322 The properties of the current (selected in the list) material can be edited with the //Modify// tool.
323
324 Customized material database can be shared between projects and users with the //Export// and //Import// tools. Click //Export// to save all materials of the current project in a named database file (//.fdlmat//). To load an exported material database to a project, just apply //Import// and browse for it.
325
326
Fredrik Lagerström 133.2 327 [[image:1584608176655-895.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 328 Figure: Material export/import
329
Fredrik Lagerström 133.2 330 |(% style="width:97px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1393px" %)Just one click on **Quantity estimation**// //(//Tools// menu), and a fast process collects all structural elements of the current project with their applied materials, material qualities, identifiers, main geometric parameters (e.g. profiles), quantities etc.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 331
Fredrik Lagerström 133.2 332 |(% style="width:113px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1377px" %)Modifying the national standard for a model the program shows a dialog where you can convert the material property of the structural elements and the reinforcing steel, so the materials will automatically change after switching the code.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 333
Fredrik Lagerström 133.2 334 [[image:1584608191237-124.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 335
336 Figure: Material conversion dialog
337
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 338 = {{id name="Information Pop-up"/}}Information Pop-up =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 339
340 Moving the cursor over a structural object, an **//Information pop-up//** appears with its main properties. For example, the pop-up displays the ID, the material, the thickness, the alignment and orthotropic features for //Plates//.
341
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 342 [[image:1584613969028-552.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 343
344 Figure: Information pop-up example
345
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 346 |(% style="width:113px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1377px" %)Information pop-up appears only for elements on visible layers and if there is not running command.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 347
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 348 |(% style="width:97px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1393px" %)Pop-up is enabled by default. To unable it, uncheck the //Display information pop-up// at //Settings > All > Environment > General >View//.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 349
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 350 = {{id name="“Properties” Tool"/}}“Properties” Tool =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 351
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 352 [[image:1584614046306-822.png]] With the //Properties// tool of a tool palette, the properties of a selected object or objects can be inquired and edited in dialog format (similar to //Default settings//).
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 353
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 354 [[image:1584614094257-717.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 355
356 Figure: Modifying object properties (e.g. cross-section of a selected beam)
357
Fredrik Lagerström 499.7 358 = {{id name="Modify properties by “Quick menu”"/}}Modify properties by “Quick menu” =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 359
Fredrik Lagerström 417.1 360 Alternative way of modifying object properties is to select any object by right click, or more objects of the same type by box, then click //“Properties //[[image:1584968999220-381.png]] //”// in the Quick menu to check/modify its/their properties. This function works for structural objects, loads or design elements.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 361
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 362 [[image:1584614131051-278.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 363
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 364 = {{id name="“Pick properties” and “Copy properties”"/}}“Pick properties” and “Copy properties” =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 365
366 With these functions the properties of an object can be copied to others of the same type, or picked to use as default. Both can be found in the //Tools// menu and in the toolbar as well.
367
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 368 [[image:1584614148289-653.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 369
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 370 To copy properties with the //Copy properties// ([[image:1584614182261-577.png]] ) function, first select the source object, then one or more objects to which the properties are to be applied.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 371
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 372 [[image:1584614161427-800.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 373
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 374 //Pick properties// ([[image:1584614198743-481.png]] ), when used on an object (of the same type as in the active editing dialogue) will update the default settings for its type.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 375
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 376 |(% style="width:113px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1377px" %)(((
377 //Pick properties// can only be used when //Define// is selected in an editing window, otherwise it is disabled.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 378
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 379 [[image:1584614287014-961.png]]
380 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 381
382 //Copy //and //Pick properties// work according to the following rules:
383
384 * Generally, the properties defined by the property dialogue will be picked or copied.
385 * They are only available in the //3D Structure //and //Plate// modules.
386 * ID will not be copied.
387 * Load case of loads will not be copied.
388 * Varying shell thickness and surface load value will not be copied.
389
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 390 = {{id name="Numbering"/}}Numbering =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 391
392 Structural elements with an ‘Identifier (. position number)’ will have an automatically or manually assigned position number.
393
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 394 [[image:1584614344163-874.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 395
396 The position number will be //0// upon creating the object and will be automatically set to another value in the following cases:
397
398 * before creating a list
399 * using the //Find //tool
400 * before calculation
401
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 402 User can manually set position numbers by //Tools/Numbering…// [[image:1584614355603-251.png]] // //tool.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 403
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 404 [[image:1584614361983-249.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 405
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 406 Use [[image:1584614366715-716.png]] for //Manual position numbering//
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 407
408 1. type required position number into the //Position no. //textbox
409 1. select option for handling position number conflicts
410 1. select object(s) to set position number for
411
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 412 [[image:1584614375936-666.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 413
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 414 |(% style="width:113px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1377px" %)(((
415 In case more objects are selected, the first one gets the position number typed by the user and for the next ones it is increased automatically.
416 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 417
418 To set position number of **component objects**, like edge connections, corbels, post-tensioned cables, punching regions, the //Select component (…)  //auxiliary option has to be checked.
419
420 Objects with manually set position number can be **highlighted** by checking the last option of the tool window.
421
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 422 [[image:1584614416851-247.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 423
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 424 The position number can be reset to zero by choosing //Reset //[[image:1584614431314-981.png]] // //option then selecting one or more objects.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 425
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 426 //Automatic numbering// [[image:1584614436757-234.png]] sets position number automatically for all objects in the database except the ones with manually set position number.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 427
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 428 The option to //Lock numbering// can be accessed by clicking its icon [[image:1584614443611-700.png]] in the same //Tool// window.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 429
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 430 [[image:1584614453969-412.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 431
432 When the numbering of a selected object type is locked, the position number of individual elements will remain the same. The maximum position number is saved for all IDs, so position numbers less than that will not be used in the future, even if some items are deleted.
433
434 This means all the element types with their numbering locked will retain their original ID, even after refreshing the numbering (either manually, or automatically).
435
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 436 [[image:1584614475497-574.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 437
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 438 = {{id name="Display Settings of Structural Elements"/}}Display Settings of Structural Elements =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 439
440 The display properties of the structural elements can be set at the //Settings > All… > Display//.
441
442 The available options depend on the current FEM-Design module.
443
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 444 [[image:1584614523032-825.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 445
446 Figure: Settings options affect on the appearance of the structural elements
447
448 * **Drawing elements**
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 449 With the //Show end points of line// option you can show (or hide) the insertion points of planar structural objects, their holes and bar objects (beams, columns etc.). These points are visible in all (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**display modes**(%%), but the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Wireframe**(%%) mode without (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**displaying the elements’ thickness**(%%) gives the clearest appearance of them.
450 [[image:1584615910533-659.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 286.1 451 Figure: Insertion points displayed in Wireframe mode(((
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 452 |(% style="width:97px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1393px" %)(((
453 By showing the insertion points you can also detect the unnecessary (for example accidentally) defined points, which may cause “too refined” finite element mesh in planar structural elements. The unnecessary points can be deleted with editing tools (//Edit// menu) which can be applied for region elements (such as plate, wall regions etc.). For example, stretch the unnecessary points outside the host region, and then cut the stretched region part(s) with the Split tool of the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Modify region**(%%) (//Edit// menu) or with the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Hole tool**(%%) of the structural planar object.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 454
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 455 [[image:1584615989630-259.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 456 Figure: Unnecessary definition points detected visually
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 457 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 458
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 459 With the //Fill-up with color// option the planar objects (plate, wall, drawing regions) can be displayed with their reference plane as colored surface or with their contour lines only. Applying the fill colors is useful to display holes/openings clearly. The filling color of an element is the default color of the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Object layer**(%%) includes the element. It can modified at the layer settings by element types (Plate, Wall etc.) or with the //Color// option of the //Change properties// tool (//Edit > Properties//) by elements (independently from their types).
460 \\[[image:1584616071151-864.png]]
461 \\Figure: Planar objects displayed with their colored surface or without it in Wireframe mode
462
463 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 464 * **Structure and load labels**
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 465 Information of structural elements (such as ID, position number, material properties, section names etc.) and load (such as intensity, Comment etc.) can be displayed on the screen by element types in (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Wireframe display mode**(%%).
466 [[image:1584616104727-156.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 467 Figure: Info labels displayed on screen by element types
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 468
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 469 * **Storey**
470 In this section the User can select how the objects can be displayed within the storey.
471
472 Every object is displayed which is in the plane of the storey or if it is crossing the range of the storey above or below according to the setting.
473
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 474 To display one of the defined storeys click on the  [[image:1584616155897-470.png]] icon in the //Toolbar//, then choose the storey you wish to be displayed:
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 475
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 476 [[image:1584616168168-960.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 477
478 The pictures below show the whole structure and how its displayed parts depend on the selected option in S//ettings/Display/Storey dialog//.
479
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 480 [[image:1584616182777-407.png]] [[image:1584616187594-921.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 481
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 482 [[image:1584616194169-291.png]] [[image:1584616199926-540.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 483
484
485 * **Display local system**
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 486 The (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**local co-ordinate system**(%%) of the structural elements can be displayed with the //Display local system// option by element types. The size of the local system symbol can be set at the //Size// option. The color of the local system axes can be set at //Local systems// setting. The default colors are: green for the local x’ axis, red for the local y’ axis and blue for the local z’ axis.
487 [[image:1584616227707-955.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 488 Figure: Local co-ordinate system displayed on screen by element types
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 489
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 490 * **Special display settings of walls**
491 With the //Display wall base line// option (//3D Structure// and //Predesign// modules only) the bottom end of the walls can be displayed as a hatched surface.
492 By inactivating the //Display wall height// option (//Plate// module only) only the reference support line (as hatched surface) can be displayed without showing the height-extension that is out from the plates’ calculation 2D plane.
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 493 \\[[image:1584616265108-734.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 494 Figure: Special display options of walls
495
496 * **Special display settings of bar elements**
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 497 The //Display section shape// option shows the applied section of the bar elements as a colored symbol in the middle of the bar reference lines. The size (//Scale//), the filling (//Fill//) and contour (//Border//) colors are customizable. Although, section shape symbols are visible in most of the different display modes, their “best” display mode is the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Wireframe**(%%) mode without (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**displaying the elements’ thickness**(%%).
498 \\The //Display connections// option shows the end connection property (see (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Beam**(%%), (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Column**(%%) or (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Fictitious bar connection**(%%) settings) of the bar elements. Only the free end motion components can be displayed as arrows, where a simple arrow shows a motion component by its direction and a double-headed arrow shows the axis direction of a rotation component. The fix (rigid) end connection components are never displayed. The color of an end motion component equals with the color of the proper axis of the host bar element’s local system (see before, (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Display local system**(%%)). The size of the symbols can be set at the //Size// option.
499 [[image:1584622743015-422.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 500 Figure: Special display options of bar elements
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 501
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 502 * **Layer, color and pen width**
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 503 All elements are placed (and grouped) on (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Object layers**(%%) according to their type. So, for example, columns are on the “Columns” layer and the walls are on the “Walls” layer. The default color and pen width of elements’ contours/reference lines are represented by their host layers. For example, by default, walls are red, if the color of the “Walls” layer is also red.
504 [[image:1584622795988-176.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 505 Figure: Layer-system of structural objects
506
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 507 |(% style="width:97px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1393px" %)(((
508 The default color of an object can be modified independently from their types with the //Color// option of the //Change properties// tool (//Edit > Properties//).
509 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 510
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 511 = {{id name="Color schema"/}}Color schema =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 512
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 513 This feature lets the users to navigate a model easier, by allowing them to fully customize element colors. These options can be accessed through the //Tools// à //Colors// menu command, or by clicking on their icon ([[image:1584622927900-699.png]] ) in the toolbar.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 514
515 //Mode// determines the attribute on which the color coding is based. When //None// is selected, the default colors for object types will be used.
516
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 517 [[image:1584622957109-755.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 518
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 519 [[image:1584623007739-957.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 520
521 For each object type, the following attributes are available:
522
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 523 (% style="width:443px" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 418.1 524 |(% style="width:206px" %)[[Beam>>doc:.Beam (Geometry).WebHome]], [[column >>doc:.Column (Geometry).WebHome]]and [[truss>>doc:.Truss member (Geometry).WebHome]]|(% style="width:234px" %)ID, Material, Cross-section
525 |(% style="width:206px" %)[[Plane plate>>doc:.Plate (Geometry).WebHome]] and [[wall>>doc:.Wall (Geometry).WebHome]]|(% style="width:234px" %)ID, Material, Thickness
Fredrik Lagerström 425.1 526 |(% style="width:206px" %)[[Profiled plate and wall>>doc:.Profiled panel (Geometry).WebHome]]|(% style="width:234px" %)ID, Material, Cross-section
527 |(% style="width:206px" %)[[Timber panel>>doc:.Timber panel (Geometry).WebHome]]|(% style="width:234px" %)ID, Material
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 528 |(% style="width:206px" %)Edge connection|(% style="width:234px" %)ID, Rigidity type
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 529
530 The //Manage// button can be used to save a specified color coding system. These can be selected afterwards from the drop-down list to the left from the //Manage// button. Schema color is saved only for a given project.
531
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 532 [[image:1584623053547-462.png]]
533
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 534 Clicking the //Apply// button will apply the color code to the model. Enabling the //Auto apply// checkbox will apply any changes automatically.
535
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 536 When a custom color scheme is in use, a legend window will be displayed. With the //Position// button, the placement of this window can be specified; it can even be hidden. By default, the legend is displayed in the bottom left corner of the screen.
537 [[image:1584623072972-909.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 538
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 539 Colors, borders, and their line types (with thickness) can be modified by clicking on the //Edit palette// button. In the dialog box, all parameters can be set for every value of the specified attribute (//ID//, //Material// or //Thickness//). It is possible to save these settings separately to be used in another color scheme.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 540
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 541 [[image:1584623091638-620.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 542
543 The Settings button will allow you to save your color scheme to a file (//*.cpal//) or as default, or load another schema.
544
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 545 |(% style="width:112px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1378px" %)When a color scheme is saved, only the colors and their order will be stored, values need to be specified each time.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 546
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 547 |(% style="width:93px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1397px" %)//Pen// (line weight) can use pixels as well as millimeters. A positive number means millimeters, while a negative one will give the line width in pixels. A line weight given in millimeters will remain the same in the documentation. When pen size is given in pixels, the line weight will remain the same on-screen, regardless of zoom level.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 548
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 549 = {{id name="Geometry"/}}Geometry =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 550
551 The definition modes and the available shapes of structural elements’ reference line or reference plane depend on:
552
Fredrik Lagerström 411.1 553 * The structural type: 1D Member or Planar Object, and
554 * The current FEM-Design module.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 555
556 The Tool palette of a structural element contains only the available modes. The next table summarizes the geometry possibilities by structural elements.
557
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 558 |**Type**|**Icon**|**Modules where available**|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 559 **Definition**
560
561 **mode**
562 )))|**Geometry**
Fredrik Lagerström 431.1 563 |[[**Soil**>>doc:.Soil (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584623251342-300.png]]|[[image:1584623272867-980.png]]|Reference region|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 564 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 565
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 566 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 567
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 568 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 569
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 570 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 273.2 571
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 572 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 573 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 402.1 574 |[[**Borehole**>>doc:.Borehole (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584623478078-802.png]]|[[image:1584623277989-659.png]]|Reference point|- (Insertion point)
Fredrik Lagerström 410.1 575 |**[[Pile>>doc:.Pile (Geometry).WebHome]]**|[[image:1584948457531-282.png]]|[[image:1584948462484-973.png]]|Reference line|(((
576 [[[[image:1584624537501-671.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pile by point** (Geometry)>>Line by insertion point (Geometry)]]
577
578 [[[[image:1584697346323-820.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Vertical line **(Geometry)>>Vertical line (Geometry)]]
579
580 [[[[image:1584697357281-495.png]]**// //Select point **(% class="wikiinternallink" %)(Geometry)>>Select point (Geometry)]]
581
582 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
583
Fredrik Lagerström 411.1 584 [[image:1584948862617-289.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Array Rectangular** (Geometry)
Fredrik Lagerström 410.1 585
Fredrik Lagerström 411.1 586 [[image:1584948883086-438.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Array Polar** (Geometry)
Fredrik Lagerström 410.1 587 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 413.1 588 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)[[**Isolated foundation**>>doc:.Isolated foundation (Geometry).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)[[image:1584624069104-381.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)[[image:1584623280887-312.png]]|Regular shape|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 296.1 589 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 590
Fredrik Lagerström 296.1 591 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 592
Fredrik Lagerström 296.1 593 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 594
Fredrik Lagerström 296.1 595 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 596
Fredrik Lagerström 296.1 597 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 598 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 300.1 599 |Reference solid|[[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing solid **(Geometry)>>Pick existing solid (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 411.1 600 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="1" %)[[**Wall foundation**>>doc:.Wall foundation (Geometry).WebHome]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="1" %)[[image:1584624261505-269.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="1" %)[[image:1584623287446-553.png]]|Line|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 300.1 601 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
602
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 603 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 604
Fredrik Lagerström 296.1 605 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 606
Fredrik Lagerström 296.1 607 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 608
Fredrik Lagerström 296.1 609 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 610 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 413.1 611 |[[**Foundation slab**>>doc:.Foundation slab (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584624421586-550.png]]|[[image:1584623297416-834.png]]|Region|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 612 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 613
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 614 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 615
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 616 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 617
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 618 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 275.1 619
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 620 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 621 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 300.1 622 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 413.1 623 [[**Column**>>doc:.Column (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 300.1 624 )))|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)[[image:1584624441837-681.png]]|[[image:1584624450492-324.png]]|Reference point|- (Insertion point)
625 |[[image:1584623303315-573.png]] [[image:1584624105479-200.png]]|Reference line|(((
626 [[[[image:1584624537501-671.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Line by insertion point** (Geometry)>>Line by insertion point (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 627
Fredrik Lagerström 299.1 628 [[[[image:1584697346323-820.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Vertical line **(Geometry)>>Vertical line (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 629
Fredrik Lagerström 299.1 630 [[[[image:1584697351680-171.png]]**// //(% class="wikiinternallink" %)Select axes (%%)**(% class="wikiinternallink" %)(Geometry)>>Select axes (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 631
Fredrik Lagerström 299.1 632 [[[[image:1584697357281-495.png]]**// //Select point **(% class="wikiinternallink" %)(Geometry)>>Select point (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 633
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 634 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 635 )))
636 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 413.1 637 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Truss member**>>doc:.Truss member (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 638 )))|[[image:1584624564721-232.png]]|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 273.2 639 [[image:1584623342867-600.png]] [[image:1584624099643-656.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 640 )))|Reference line|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 295.1 641 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 642
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 643 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 644 )))
645 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 426.1 646 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Intermediate section**>>doc:.Intermediate section (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 647
648
Fredrik Lagerström 273.2 649 )))|[[image:1584624582798-190.png]]|[[image:1584623345607-668.png]] [[image:1584624093581-629.png]] [[image:1584624141904-781.png]]|Reference point|- (Insertion point)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 650 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 427.1 651 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Apex**>>doc:.Apex (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 652
653
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 654 )))|[[image:1584624598909-360.png]]|[[image:1584623347714-840.png]] [[image:1584624118381-851.png]]|Reference beams|-
Fredrik Lagerström 428.1 655 |[[**Column corbel**>>doc:.Column corbel (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584626086733-429.png]]|[[image:1584623350740-283.png]] [[image:1584624114784-116.png]]|Reference point on a column|- (Insertion point)
656 |[[**Wall corbel**>>doc:.Wall corbel (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584626089193-100.png]]|[[image:1584623353009-633.png]]|Reference line|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 295.1 657 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 658
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 659 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 660
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 661 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 662
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 663 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 664
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 665 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 666 )))
667 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 415.1 668 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Plate**>>doc:.Plate (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 669 )))|[[image:1584626108393-467.png]]|[[image:1584624129994-181.png]] [[image:1584623356108-911.png]]|Reference region|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 670 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 671
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 672 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 673
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 674 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 675
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 676 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 677
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 678 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 679 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 300.1 680 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="3" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 419.1 681 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Wall**>>doc:.Wall (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 300.1 682 )))|(% colspan="1" rowspan="3" %)[[image:1584626155224-753.png]]|[[image:1584624132656-255.png]]|Reference line|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 295.1 683 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 684
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 685 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 686
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 687 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 688
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 689 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 690
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 691 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 692 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 300.1 693 |[[image:1584626498399-746.png]] [[image:1584626666857-191.png]]|Reference region|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 694 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 695
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 696 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 697
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 698 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 699
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 700 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 701
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 702 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 703 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 300.1 704 |[[image:1584623360146-509.png]]|Reference region|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 295.1 705 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 706
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 707 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 708
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 709 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 710
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 711 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 712
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 713 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 714 )))
715 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 426.1 716 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Profiled plate**>>doc:.Profiled panel (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 717 )))|[[image:1584626165079-213.png]]|[[image:1584623321986-874.png]]|Reference region|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 718 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 719
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 720 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 721
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 722 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 723
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 724 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 725
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 726 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 727 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 426.1 728 |(% class="wikiinternallink" %)[[**Profiled wall**>>doc:.Profiled panel (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584626172354-822.png]]|[[image:1584623321986-874.png]]|Reference region|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 295.1 729 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 730
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 731 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 732
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 733 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 734
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 735 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 736
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 737 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 738 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 300.1 739 |(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 426.1 740 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Timber panel**>>doc:.Timber panel (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 300.1 741 )))|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)[[image:1584626179198-475.png]]|(% colspan="1" rowspan="2" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 742 [[image:1584626364745-447.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 743
744
745 )))|Reference region|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 273.2 746 [[image:1584626990183-361.png]]** Use as plate:**
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 747
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 748 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 749
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 750 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 751
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 752 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 753
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 754 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 755
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 756 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 757 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 300.1 758 |Reference region|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 273.2 759 [[image:1584626980930-610.png]]** Use as wall:**
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 760
Fredrik Lagerström 295.1 761 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 762
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 763 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 764
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 765 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 766
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 767 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 768
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 769 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 770 )))
771 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 484.1 772 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Point support**>>doc:.Point support (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 482.1 773
Fredrik Lagerström 484.1 774 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Point support group**>>doc:.Point support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 775 )))|[[image:1584626189643-296.png]] [[image:1584626198843-858.png]]|[[image:1584624153750-998.png]] [[image:1584626506933-120.png]] [[image:1584626542318-723.png]] [[image:1584626471244-390.png]] [[image:1584626361817-129.png]]|Reference point|- (Insertion point)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 776 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 484.1 777 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Line support**>>doc:.Line support (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 482.1 778
Fredrik Lagerström 484.1 779 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Line support group**>>doc:.Line support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 780 )))|[[image:1584626246461-851.png]] [[image:1584626255708-112.png]]|(((
781 [[image:1584624156911-243.png]] [[image:1584626509582-695.png]] [[image:1584626542318-723.png]] [[image:1584626465050-475.png]] [[image:1584626360759-306.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 782 )))|Reference line|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 295.1 783 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 784
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 785 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 786
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 787 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 788
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 789 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 790
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 791 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 792 )))
793 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 484.1 794 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Surface support**>>doc:.Surface support group (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 275.1 795 )))|[[image:1584627036758-199.png]]|[[image:1584624162949-282.png]] [[image:1584626357599-694.png]] |Reference region|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 796 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 797
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 798 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 799
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 800 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 801
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 802 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 803
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 804 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 805 )))
806 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 461.1 807 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Point-point connection**>>doc:.Point-point connection (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 273.2 808 )))|[[image:1584626854928-822.png]]|[[image:1584624162949-282.png]] [[image:1584626525892-294.png]] [[image:1584626542318-723.png]] [[image:1584626404958-277.png]] [[image:1584626347070-675.png]]|Reference points|- (Insertion points)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 809 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 470.1 810 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Line-line connection**>>doc:.Line-line connection (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 273.2 811 )))|[[image:1584626849564-903.png]]|[[image:1584624166085-413.png]] [[image:1584626528620-972.png]] [[image:1584626537838-910.png]] [[image:1584626404958-277.png]] [[image:1584626348752-205.png]]|Reference lines|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 295.1 812 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 813
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 814 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 815
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 816 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 817
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 818 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 819
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 820 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 821 )))
822 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 426.1 823 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Fictitious bar**>>doc:.Fictitious bar (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 273.2 824 )))|[[image:1584626835276-942.png]]|[[image:1584624169288-537.png]] [[image:1584626398213-720.png]] [[image:1584626338887-991.png]]|Reference line|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 295.1 825 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 826
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 827 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 828
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 829 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 830
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 831 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 832
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 833 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 834 )))
835 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 429.1 836 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Cover**>>Cover (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 837
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 838 //- //Wall type
839 )))|[[image:1584626276528-532.png]] [[image:1584626285200-177.png]]|[[image:1584626393910-272.png]] [[image:1584626336747-529.png]]|Reference line|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 295.1 840 [[[[image:1584697163511-135.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Straight line**(%%) (Geometry)>>doc:.Geometry Straight line.WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 841
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 842 [[[[image:1584697172307-862.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by center, start and end points** (Geometry)>>Arc by center, start and end points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 843
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 844 [[[[image:1584697177537-604.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by 3 points **(Geometry)>>Arc by 3 points (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 845
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 846 [[[[image:1584697186851-460.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Arc by start, end point and tangent **(Geometry)>>Arc by start, end point and tangent (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 847
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 848 [[[[image:1584694349499-480.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Line by selection **(Geometry)>>Line by selection (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 849 )))
850 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 432.1 851 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Cover**>>doc:.Cover (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 852
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 853 - Slab or roof type
854 )))| |[[image:1584626390126-424.png]] [[image:1584626334467-202.png]]|Reference region|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 855 [[[[image:1584623388010-106.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Rectangular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Rectangular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 856
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 857 [[[[image:1584624295668-238.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Circular**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Circular (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 858
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 859 [[[[image:1584624332273-481.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Polygonal**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Polygonal (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 860
Fredrik Lagerström 297.1 861 [[[[image:1584624369220-461.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick lines**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick lines (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 862
Fredrik Lagerström 298.1 863 [[[[image:1584624377056-530.png]] (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Pick existing region**(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)** **(Geometry)>>Pick existing region (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 864 )))
865 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 434.1 866 [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Building cover**>>doc:.Cover (Geometry).WebHome||anchor="HBuildingcover"]]
Fredrik Lagerström 268.2 867 )))|[[image:1584624184377-240.png]]|[[image:1584626388360-891.png]] [[image:1584626332274-282.png]]|Reference plane shape|-
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 868
869 Table: Structural Objects and their geometry definition
870
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 871 = {{id name="Hole"/}}Hole =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 872
Fredrik Lagerström 309.1 873 [[image:1584706736189-590.png]] Holes, openings and cuttings can be added to reference regions (Plate, Wall and Surface support) with the //Hole// tool. The following geometries can be used for holes:
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 874
875 The steps of a hole definition:
876
877 1. Select the host region with mouse-clicking. Clicking a region places the **//UCS//** into the region plane, so giving hole coordinates needs only X and Y values from the UCS origin.
878 1. Define the geometry of the hole with one of the following geometry modes:
Fredrik Lagerström 309.1 879 [[[[image:1584706750496-863.png]] >>doc:.Rectangular (Geometry).WebHome]]**//[[Rectangular>>doc:.Rectangular (Geometry).WebHome]]//**
880 [[[[image:1584706782578-809.png]] >>doc:.Circular (Geometry).WebHome]]**//[[Circular>>doc:.Circular (Geometry).WebHome]]//**
881 [[[[image:1584706787849-490.png]] >>doc:.Polygonal (Geometry).WebHome]]**//[[Polygonal>>doc:.Polygonal (Geometry).WebHome]]//**
882 [[[[image:1584706793511-935.png]] >>doc:.Pick lines (Geometry).WebHome]]**//[[Pick lines>>doc:.Pick lines (Geometry).WebHome]]//**
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 883
Fredrik Lagerström 309.1 884 [[image:1584706811302-975.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 885
Fredrik Lagerström 309.1 886 Figure: Examples for holes
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 887
888
Fredrik Lagerström 309.1 889 [[image:1584706861606-261.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 890
Fredrik Lagerström 309.1 891 Figure: Hole tool can be used to edit region geometries as cuttings
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 892
Fredrik Lagerström 309.1 893 Holes can be easily copy inside a region or among regions with same reference plane position with the (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Copy**(%%)**// command //**(//Edit// menu). It is recommended to display only the regions’ reference plane (inactive (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Display thickness**(%%) option) to easily select the contour of the hole you would like to copy. To set the distances/new positions, the (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**UCS**(%%) has to be in the plane of the host region(s).
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 894
895
Fredrik Lagerström 309.1 896 [[image:1584706885561-898.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 897
898 Figure: Copying holes in a Wall
899
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 900 = {{id name="Direction"/}}Direction =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 901
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 902 Numerous objects need direction settings for their positioning (bar elements) or their components definition (supports). The next table summarizes the direction possibilities by structural elements.
903
904 |**Type**|**Icon**|**Modules where available**|**Direction for**|**Direction Modes**
Fredrik Lagerström 435.1 905 |[[**Soil**>>doc:.Soil (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711285392-617.png]]|[[image:1584712006264-111.png]]|-|-
Fredrik Lagerström 402.1 906 |[[**Borehole**>>doc:.Borehole (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711290870-489.png]]|[[image:1584712008949-787.png]]|-|-
Fredrik Lagerström 435.1 907 |[[**Isolated foundation**>>doc:.Isolated foundation (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711296674-615.png]]|[[image:1584712010771-322.png]]|Solid position:
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 908 Direction of local x’ axis|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 392.4 909 [[[[image:1584714999028-689.png]]** Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>Predefined direction (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 910
Fredrik Lagerström 392.4 911 [[[[image:1584715029847-320.png]]**// //Local system** (Geometry)>>Local system (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 912 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 435.1 913 |[[**Wall foundation**>>doc:.Wall foundation (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711303553-127.png]]|[[image:1584712012851-458.png]]|-|-
914 |[[**Foundation slab**>>doc:.Foundation slab (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711309010-316.png]]|[[image:1584712015079-616.png]]|-|-
915 |[[**Beam**>>doc:.Beam (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711313833-385.png]]|[[image:1584714697029-359.png]] [[image:1584712026097-564.png]]|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 916 Cross-section position:
917
918 Direction of local y’ axis
919 )))|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 394.1 920 [[[[image:1584715043353-386.png]] **Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 921
Fredrik Lagerström 392.4 922 [[[[image:1584715057079-206.png]] **Parallel with line** (Geometry)>>Parallel with line (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 923
Fredrik Lagerström 392.4 924 [[[[image:1584715075140-697.png]] **Perpendicular to plane** (Geometry)>>Perpendicular to plane (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 925 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 435.1 926 |[[**Column**>>doc:.Column (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711323366-603.png]]|[[image:1584714735464-665.png]] [[image:1584714679142-162.png]] [[image:1584712028654-886.png]]|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 927 Cross-section position:
928
929 Direction of local y’ axis
930 )))|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 394.1 931 [[[[image:1584715043353-386.png]] **Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 932
Fredrik Lagerström 392.4 933 [[[[image:1584715057079-206.png]] **Parallel with line** (Geometry)>>Parallel with line (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 934
Fredrik Lagerström 392.4 935 [[[[image:1584715075140-697.png]] **Perpendicular to plane** (Geometry)>>Perpendicular to plane (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 936 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 435.1 937 |[[**Truss member**>>doc:.Truss member (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711328905-765.png]]|[[image:1584714663160-148.png]] [[image:1584712068391-862.png]]|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 938 Cross-section position:
939
940 Direction of local y’ axis
941 )))|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 394.1 942 [[[[image:1584715043353-386.png]] **Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 943
Fredrik Lagerström 392.4 944 [[[[image:1584715057079-206.png]] **Parallel with line** (Geometry)>>Parallel with line (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 945
Fredrik Lagerström 392.4 946 [[[[image:1584715075140-697.png]] **Perpendicular to plane** (Geometry)>>Perpendicular to plane (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 947 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 435.1 948 |[[**Column corbel**>>doc:.Column corbel (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711410693-123.png]]|[[image:1584712077681-687.png]]|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 949 Horizontal axis position:
950
951 Angle between the horizontal axis of the corbel and the local y’ axis of the column
952 )))|(((
953 [[image:1584715200772-583.png]]
954
955 **Alpha[°]**
956 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 485.1 957 |[[**Point support**>>doc:.Point support (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711402142-454.png]]|[[image:1584714743178-860.png]]|Rotation direction|[[[[image:1584715043353-386.png]] **Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.4 958 | | |[[image:1584714815881-354.png]] [[image:1584714845551-979.png]]|Motion component direction|[[[[image:1584715057079-206.png]] **Parallel with line** (Geometry)>>Parallel with line (Geometry)]]
959 | | |[[image:1584712176791-802.png]] [[image:1584712081677-423.png]]|Component direction|[[[[image:1584715075140-697.png]] **Perpendicular to plane** (Geometry)>>Perpendicular to plane (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 485.1 960 |[[**Point support group**>>doc:.Point support group (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711419164-677.png]]|[[image:1584714754985-386.png]] [[image:1584714820244-759.png]] [[image:1584714847906-752.png]]|Component direction|- (**Predefined direction**)
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 961 | | |(((
962 [[image:1584712171748-874.png]] [[image:1584712085634-334.png]]
963 )))|(((
964 Component direction
965
966 (reference system)
967 )))|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 394.1 968 [[[[image:1584714999028-689.png]]** Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 969
Fredrik Lagerström 395.1 970 [[[[image:1584715029847-320.png]]**// //Local system** (Geometry)>>Local system (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 971 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 485.1 972 |[[**Line support**>>doc:.Line support (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711426719-997.png]]|[[image:1584714760642-469.png]]|Rotation direction|[[[[image:1584715043353-386.png]] **Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.4 973 | | |[[image:1584714802324-501.png]] [[image:1584714850558-530.png]]|Motion component direction|[[[[image:1584715057079-206.png]] **Parallel with line** (Geometry)>>Parallel with line (Geometry)]]
974 | | |[[image:1584712154811-509.png]] [[image:1584712090694-106.png]]|Component direction|[[[[image:1584715075140-697.png]] **Perpendicular to plane** (Geometry)>>Perpendicular to plane (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 485.1 975 |[[**Line support group**>>doc:.Line support group (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711431853-510.png]]|[[image:1584714765861-406.png]] [[image:1584714798601-762.png]] [[image:1584714852297-294.png]]|Component direction|- (**Predefined direction**)
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 976 | | |(((
977 [[image:1584712145237-643.png]] [[image:1584712094285-339.png]]
978 )))|(((
979 Component direction
980
981 (reference system)
982 )))|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 394.1 983 [[[[image:1584715043353-386.png]] **Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 984
Fredrik Lagerström 392.4 985 [[[[image:1584715057079-206.png]] **Parallel with line** (Geometry)>>Parallel with line (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 986
Fredrik Lagerström 392.4 987 [[[[image:1584715075140-697.png]] **Perpendicular to plane** (Geometry)>>Perpendicular to plane (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 988 )))
989 |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 471.1 990 [[**Point-point connection**>>doc:.Point-point connection (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 991 )))|[[image:1584711439003-394.png]]|[[image:1584714772017-255.png]] [[image:1584714795090-522.png]] [[image:1584714857590-118.png]] [[image:1584712134914-287.png]] [[image:1584712114611-699.png]]|Component direction|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 394.1 992 [[[[image:1584714999028-689.png]]** Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 993
Fredrik Lagerström 395.1 994 [[[[image:1584715029847-320.png]]**// //Local system** (Geometry)>>Local system (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 995 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 471.1 996 |[[**Line-line connection**>>doc:.Line-line connection (Geometry).WebHome]]|[[image:1584711444378-138.png]]|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 997 [[image:1584714780200-418.png]] [[image:1584714789968-872.png]] [[image:1584714864191-992.png]] [[image:1584712128585-509.png]] [[image:1584711616851-229.png]]
998
999
1000 )))|Component direction|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 394.1 1001 [[[[image:1584714999028-689.png]]** Predefined direction** (Geometry)>>doc:.Predefined direction (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 1002
Fredrik Lagerström 395.1 1003 [[[[image:1584715029847-320.png]]**// //Local system** (Geometry)>>Local system (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 392.2 1004 )))
1005
1006 Table: Structural Objects and their direction settings
Fredrik Lagerström 399.1 1007
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 1008 = {{id name="Change Direction"/}}**Change Direction** =
Fredrik Lagerström 399.1 1009
1010 Any previously set direction can be modified by the editing commands (//Edit// menu): **Change direction** and **Rotate**.
1011
1012 //Change direction// uses the **Predefined direction**, **Parallel with line** and **Perpendicular to plane** direction definition tools.
1013
1014 [[image:1584717194269-503.png]]
1015
1016
1017 Figure: Beam position (local y’ axis) is modified with Change direction
1018
1019 //Rotate// edits a selected direction or the main direction of a selected system with giving new direction points or the rotation angle. Rotation works around a given point or an axis.
1020
1021 [[image:1584717201569-985.png]]
1022
1023 Figure: Rotate modifies the main direction (x’) of the Point support group
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1024
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 1025 = {{id name="Supports and Connections"/}}Supports and Connections =
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1026
1027 This chapter summarizes the possibilities and properties of the available supports and connections.
1028
1029 The connection with the ground (model space) can be modeled with //Supports//, while the link among structural elements can be defined with //Connections//. All support/connection components can be set to:
1030
1031 * “infinite” rigid: blocked motion/rotation,
1032 * “free”: released motion/rotation, or
1033 * semi-rigid: given stiffness value (spring) against motion/rotation.
1034
1035 **Non-linear behaviors**, independent compression and tension, elastic and plastic behaviour settings are also available for all motion and rotation components.
1036
Fredrik Lagerström 476.1 1037 |[[image:light.png]]|//Edge connection //is a special tool of structural object definitions. Although it was described at planar objects (like [[**Plate**>>doc:.Plate (Geometry).WebHome]]), the following connection settings and functions are also valid for //Edge connections//.
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1038
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1039 |(% style="width:105px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1385px" %)(((
1040 **Support motion loads** have to be assigned to supports, so supports are requested input parameters for motion-type loads.
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1041
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1042 Always try to create stable structural model by defining correct support and connection conditions. From unstable (kinematically indeterminate) structure equilibrium error can be resulted. In that case the program sends a warning message at the end of the calculations, and you can determine the location of the problems by checking the equilibrium (//Analysis// > **Equilibrium**), the displacement/buckling and/vibration shape results of the structure. It may also happen that the model is so incorrect that calculations stops with error messages and without results.
1043 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1044
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1045 == “Infinite” Rigidity ==
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1046
1047 The value of “infinite” rigidity can be defined and set as project default by support/connection types and components at //Settings > All > FEM//. Go through the //Motion// and //Rotation// components by support and connections types and set the requested stiffness value that model blocked absolute/relative displacement.
1048
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1049 |[[image:light.png]]|(((
1050 The “rigid” values can be set to default for further projects, if select //“Rigid” values// in the //Settings //tree and click //Save as default//.
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1051
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1052 (% style="text-align:center" %)
1053 [[image:1585063861141-403.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1054
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1055 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1056 Figure: “Rigid” values
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1057 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1058
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1059 |[[image:light.png]]|(((
1060 The “rigid” value can be set by support/connection/fictitious bar element inside its settings dialog (//Setup “Rigid”//) independently of the project default.
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1061
Fredrik Lagerström 476.1 1062 (% style="text-align:center" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1063 [[image:1585063900363-901.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1064
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1065 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1066 Figure: “Rigid” value set by support objects
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1067 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1068
1069 == Properties (Non-linear behaviours) ==
1070
1071 Compression, tension, elastic and plastic behavior of supports and connections can be set separately and by components.
1072
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1073 [[image:1585063962335-274.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1074
1075 Figure: The parts of typical support/connection settings dialogs
1076
1077 * **Stiffness fields by compression and tension**
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1078 //“Rigid”// or //Free// can be chosen from the pop-ups, or stiffness value (spring support/connection) can be typed in the fields.(((
1079 |[[image:light.png]]|(((
1080 Active [[image:1585064011285-311.png]] icon assigns the stiffness value typed in the //Compression// field to the //Tension// field. Inactive icon [[image:1585064017291-624.png]] lets to define the stiffness values separately.
1081 )))
1082 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1083 * **Predefined types**
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1084 Click [[image:1585064057071-311.png]] to set all motion and rotation components to “rigid”. The result will be a totally rigid support/connection.
1085 Click [[image:1585064062442-248.png]] to set all rotation components to “free” (allow rotation around all directions). The result will be a hinged support/connection.
1086 Click [[image:1585064073613-904.png]] to set all components to free. This tool gives the possibility to virtually connect independently moving elements.(((
1087 |(% style="width:102px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1348px" %)(((
1088 **“**Uplift” can be modeled both in 2D and 3D design modules by defining compression-only //support /// //connection// (tension = 0 (free)) and by checking the **Consider non-linear behavior of supports, trusses and connections**// //box at //Calculate> Analysis//.
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1089
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1090 [[image:1585064110145-957.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1091
1092 Figure: Allow uplift in Plate and 3D Structure modules
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1093 )))
1094 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1095
1096 * **Using “Detach” option**
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1097 The nonlinear behavior of supports and connections (//Point support//, //Point support group, Line support, Line support group, Surface support, 3D //Plates and Walls //Edge connection, border //and //panel// connection of //Timber panels //and// Profiled panels//) can be controlled by one signed component. It means, if the force in the connection / support happen to act in this selected direction, all spring constants will be set to 0, so called it is detached. This option can be set in the dialog, where the spring coefficients are set. If in the //Detach// list anything is selected (e.g. z’ tension) the corresponding spring constant will be automatically set to 0.
1098 \\[[image:1585064150149-209.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1099
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1100 |(% style="width:88px" %)[[image:1585064177336-343.png]]|(% style="width:1402px" %)(((
1101 If in Calculations dialog the ”//Consider non-linear behavior of supports, trusses and connections//” option is checked the calculation method is the following: If in the connection where the detach behavior is defined (e.g. z’ tension) the connection force is tension in the given direction (z’) in an iteration step all of the other spring constant will be set to 0. If in any later iteration step the connection force will be compression, the spring constants will be set to the previously defined values.
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1102
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1103 [[image:1585064193502-609.png]]
1104 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1105
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1106 |[[image:warning.png]]|There is a big difference between setting any of the components to zero or selecting a detach behavior. If the user sets manually a component to zero, in the analysis the connection or support will not have rigidity in that direction.
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1107
1108 == Supports ==
1109
Fredrik Lagerström 462.1 1110 === **Support types** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1111
1112 The following table summarizes the available support types and their main features in the different FEM-Design Modules.
1113
Fredrik Lagerström 483.1 1114 |[[image:warning.png]]|[[**Column**>>doc:.Column (Geometry).WebHome]] and [[**Plane wall**>>doc:.Wall (Geometry).WebHome]] are developed to model single point and line support in [[image:1585064308121-249.png]] //Plate// module. These types of support are not mentioned in the //Support// chapter.
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1115
Fredrik Lagerström 459.1 1116 (% style="width:256px" %)
1117 |(% style="width:73px" %)Icon|(% style="width:180px" %)Name
Fredrik Lagerström 480.1 1118 |(% style="width:73px" %)[[image:1585064474212-720.png]]|(% style="width:180px" %)[[Point support>>Point support (Geometry)]]
1119 |(% style="width:73px" %)[[image:1585064468499-110.png]]|(% style="width:180px" %)[[Point support group>>Point support group (Geometry)]]
1120 |(% style="width:73px" %)[[image:1585064429398-198.png]]|(% style="width:180px" %)[[Line support>>Line support (Geometry)]]
1121 |(% style="width:73px" %)[[image:1585064423053-113.png]]|(% style="width:180px" %)[[Line support group>>Line support group (Geometry)]]
1122 |(% style="width:73px" %)[[image:1585064415542-626.png]]|(% style="width:180px" %)[[Surface support group>>Surface support group (Geometry)]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1123
Fredrik Lagerström 459.1 1124 == **Single Support versus Support group** ==
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1125
Fredrik Lagerström 489.1 1126 Single Support defines only one component in one step, whilst Support group places a group of more components in one step. Although single Supports can be combined and work as a group support, it is recommended to define multi-support conditions with Support group, because all support components can be set or modified later (with the [[image:1585148173109-272.png]] //Properties// tool) inside one settings dialog.
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1127
Fredrik Lagerström 489.1 1128 [[image:1585148177757-781.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1129
1130 Figure: A fully rigid support modeled by six single Support components or one Support group
1131
Fredrik Lagerström 489.1 1132 Special color-system differentiates //single Supports// from the //Support group// components. Whilst a single// Support// uses the color of the “Supports”// //(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Object layer**(%%), the components of a //Support group// are displayed in the colors equivalent with the support’s //Local system// (//Settings > All > Display > Support //and //Local systems//).
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1133
Fredrik Lagerström 489.1 1134 [[image:1585148198162-954.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1135
1136 Figure: Color settings of support types
1137
1138 == Connection Objects ==
1139
1140 **Connection types**
1141
Fredrik Lagerström 475.1 1142 (% style="width:284px" %)
1143 |(% style="width:84px" %)Icon|(% style="width:197px" %)Function
1144 |(% style="width:84px" %)[[image:1585065760145-701.png]]|(% style="width:197px" %)[[Point-point connection>>doc:.Point-point connection (Geometry).WebHome]]
1145 |(% style="width:84px" %)[[image:1585065769120-640.png]]|(% style="width:197px" %)[[Line-line connection>>doc:.Line-line connection (Geometry).WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1146
Fredrik Lagerström 496.1 1147 |(% style="width:104px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1386px" %)(((
1148 (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Edge connection**(%%) is not a “connection object”. It is a definition tool for boundary connection conditions, which is available for (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Plate**(%%)/(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Wall**(%%), (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Profiled panel**(%%) and (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Timber Panel**(%%) elements. But, the (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**non-linear behavior and component settings**(%%) are valid for edge connections introduced for the supports and below mentioned connection elements. See the definition modes and possibilities of an (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Edge connection at Plate**(%%).
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1149
Fredrik Lagerström 475.1 1150 The end connection property of the bar elements are also not “connection objects”. You can read more about them at the (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Beam**(%%), (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Column**(%%) and (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Fictitious bar** **connection**(%%) settings.
Fredrik Lagerström 496.1 1151 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1152
1153 For the end points of the edge connections two options are available:
1154
1155 * Separate end points from environment,
1156 * Connect end point to environment.
1157
Fredrik Lagerström 496.1 1158 In all Shell Toolwindows this setting is available by choosing ‘Edge connection’ then clicking [[image:1585148332414-120.png]] on ‘End point behaviour’ [[image:1585148337443-223.png]]**// //** button. The end point can be chosen in three steps by selecting the Plate or Wall, then the edge and finally the end point.
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1159
Fredrik Lagerström 496.1 1160 [[image:1585148343595-809.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1161
Fredrik Lagerström 496.1 1162 |(% style="width:88px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1402px" %)(((
1163 Using this function can solve problems like the one on the picture below:
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1164
1165 On the right side structure all edge connection end points are connected to the environment which cases difference between the shear force on the wall and the sum of shear forces on the plate panels, which should be in balance according to common sense and this is exactly the case on the left side structure where edge connection end points are separated from the environment.
1166
Fredrik Lagerström 496.1 1167 [[image:1585148385776-904.png]]
1168 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1169
1170 == Plastic calculation ==
1171
1172 The plastic data can be set in the //Default settings/Data tab //of each above mentioned options. The figure shows where the feature is placed in the dialog.
1173
Fredrik Lagerström 464.1 1174 [[image:1585064808744-872.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1175
1176 == Rigidity type ==
1177
Fredrik Lagerström 497.1 1178 This option is used by **[[Point support group>>doc:.Point support group (Geometry).WebHome]], [[Line support group>>doc:.Line support group (Geometry).WebHome]], [[Surface support group>>doc:.Surface support group (Geometry).WebHome]]**//, //**Edge connection**// //in [[**Plane Plate**>>doc:.Plate (Geometry).WebHome]]// //and **[[Wall>>doc:.Wall (Geometry).WebHome]] **structural objects, Point-point connection, Line-line connection, border// //and //panel// connection of [[**Timber**>>doc:.Timber panel (Geometry).WebHome]] and [[**Profiled panels**>>doc:.Profiled panel (Geometry).WebHome]]. With rigidity type the user can define and load specific predefined spring constants.
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1179
1180 If the rigidity type is //Custom// the user can define the spring constants as in previous versions. To define a type the user has to choose the //Edit library…// option.
1181
Fredrik Lagerström 468.1 1182 [[image:1585064901136-748.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1183
1184 After defining rigidity types, the defined spring constants will be registered in the Library and it can be loaded in the future.
1185
Fredrik Lagerström 468.1 1186 [[image:1585064908346-534.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1187
Fredrik Lagerström 468.1 1188 |[[image:warning.png]]|(((
1189 There are some objects that use the same rigidity type library:
Fredrik Lagerström 437.1 1190
Fredrik Lagerström 452.2 1191 * //Line – line connection, Edge connection (3D Plate, Wall), border //and //panel// connection of //Timber panels //and// Profiled panels//
Fredrik Lagerström 468.1 1192 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 499.1 1193
Fredrik Lagerström 499.5 1194 = {{id name="Construction stages"/}}Construction stages =
Fredrik Lagerström 499.1 1195
1196 Construction stages are explained on this page: [[Construction stages>>Construction stages (Geometry)]]
1197
1198
Copyright 2020 StruSoft AB
FEM-Design Wiki