<
From version < 436.1 >
edited by Fredrik Lagerström
on 2020/03/24 15:51
To version < 437.1 >
edited by Fredrik Lagerström
on 2020/03/24 16:27
>
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1080 1080  [[image:1584717201569-985.png]]
1081 1081  
1082 1082  Figure: Rotate modifies the main direction (x’) of the Point support group
1083 +
1084 +(% style="font-size: 72px; color: rgb(231, 76, 60)" %)**XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX**
1085 +
1086 += Supports and Connections =
1087 +
1088 +This chapter summarizes the possibilities and properties of the available supports and connections.
1089 +
1090 +The connection with the ground (model space) can be modeled with //Supports//, while the link among structural elements can be defined with //Connections//. All support/connection components can be set to:
1091 +
1092 +* “infinite” rigid: blocked motion/rotation,
1093 +* “free”: released motion/rotation, or
1094 +* semi-rigid: given stiffness value (spring) against motion/rotation.
1095 +
1096 +**Non-linear behaviors**, independent compression and tension, elastic and plastic behaviour settings are also available for all motion and rotation components.
1097 +
1098 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] ** //Edge connection //is a special tool of structural object definitions. Although it was described at planar objects (like **Plate**), the following connection settings and functions are also valid for //Edge connections//.
1099 +
1100 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] Support motion loads** have to be assigned to supports, so supports are requested input parameters for motion-type loads.
1101 +
1102 + Always try to create stable structural model by defining correct support and connection conditions. From unstable (kinematically indeterminate) structure equilibrium error can be resulted. In that case the program sends a warning message at the end of the calculations, and you can determine the location of the problems by checking the equilibrium (//Analysis// > **Equilibrium**), the displacement/buckling and/vibration shape results of the structure. It may also happen that the model is so incorrect that calculations stops with error messages and without results.
1103 +
1104 +==== “Infinite” Rigidity ====
1105 +
1106 +The value of “infinite” rigidity can be defined and set as project default by support/connection types and components at //Settings > All > FEM//. Go through the //Motion// and //Rotation// components by support and connections types and set the requested stiffness value that model blocked absolute/relative displacement.
1107 +
1108 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **The “rigid” values can be set to default for further projects, if select //“Rigid” values// in the //Settings //tree and click //Save as default//.
1109 +
1110 +
1111 +Figure: “Rigid” values
1112 +
1113 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **The “rigid” value can be set by support/connection/fictitious bar element inside its settings dialog (//Setup “Rigid”//) independently of the project default.
1114 +
1115 +
1116 +Figure: “Rigid” value set by support objects
1117 +
1118 +
1119 +== Properties (Non-linear behaviours) ==
1120 +
1121 +Compression, tension, elastic and plastic behavior of supports and connections can be set separately and by components.
1122 +
1123 +
1124 +Figure: The parts of typical support/connection settings dialogs
1125 +
1126 +* **Stiffness fields by compression and tension**
1127 +
1128 +//“Rigid”// or //Free// can be chosen from the pop-ups, or stiffness value (spring support/connection) can be typed in the fields.
1129 +
1130 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **Active [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image013.png||alt="icon_suplinkbutton"]] icon assigns the stiffness value typed in the //Compression// field to the //Tension// field. Inactive icon [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image014.png||alt="icon_inaktiveconlink"]] lets to define the stiffness values separately.
1131 +
1132 +* **Predefined types**
1133 +
1134 +Click [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image015.png||alt="rigid_icon"]] to set all motion and rotation components to “rigid”. The result will be a totally rigid support/connection.
1135 +
1136 +Click [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image016.png||alt="hinged_icon"]] to set all rotation components to “free” (allow rotation around all directions). The result will be a hinged support/connection.
1137 +
1138 +Click [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image017.png||alt="free_icon"]] to set all components to free. This tool gives the possibility to virtually connect independently moving elements.
1139 +
1140 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] “**Uplift” can be modeled both in 2D and 3D design modules by defining compression-only //support /// //connection// (tension = 0 (free)) and by checking the **Consider non-linear behavior of supports, trusses and connections**// //box at //Calculate> Analysis//.
1141 +
1142 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image018.png]]
1143 +
1144 +Figure: Allow uplift in Plate and 3D Structure modules
1145 +
1146 +* **Using “Detach” option**
1147 +
1148 +The nonlinear behavior of supports and connections (//Point support//, //Point support group, Line support, Line support group, Surface support, 3D //Plates and Walls //Edge connection, border //and //panel// connection of //Timber panels //and// Profiled panels//) can be controlled by one signed component. It means, if the force in the connection / support happen to act in this selected direction, all spring constants will be set to 0, so called it is detached. This option can be set in the dialog, where the spring coefficients are set. If in the //Detach// list anything is selected (e.g. z’ tension) the corresponding spring constant will be automatically set to 0.
1149 +
1150 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image019.png]]
1151 +
1152 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image020.png||alt="egerpad%20copy"]] If in Calculations dialog the ”//Consider non-linear behavior of supports, trusses and connections//” option is checked the calculation method is the following: If in the connection where the detach behavior is defined (e.g. z’ tension) the connection force is tension in the given direction (z’) in an iteration step all of the other spring constant will be set to 0. If in any later iteration step the connection force will be compression, the spring constants will be set to the previously defined values.
1153 +
1154 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image021.png]]
1155 +
1156 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **There is a big difference between setting any of the components to zero or selecting a detach behavior. If the user sets manually a component to zero, in the analysis the connection or support will not have rigidity in that direction.
1157 +
1158 +
1159 +
1160 +== Supports ==
1161 +
1162 +**Support types**
1163 +
1164 +The following table summarizes the available support types and their main features in the different FEM-Design Modules.
1165 +
1166 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] Column** and **Plane wall** are developed to model single point and line support in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]] //Plate// module. These types of support are not mentioned in the //Support// chapter.
1167 +
1168 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image023.png||alt="icon_PointSupport"]] Point support property|**Description**
1169 +|Modules where available|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]]
1170 +|Motion component direction|Parallel with Global Z axis in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1171 +| |Arbitrary direction in Global XY plane in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]
1172 +| |Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]]
1173 +|Rotation component direction|Arbitrary direction in Global XY plane in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1174 +| |Not available in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]
1175 +| |Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]]
1176 +|Geometry|- (insertion point)
1177 +|Available analysis results|[[**Reaction forces and moments**>>path:#_Reactions]]
1178 +|Load can be assigned|[[**Point support motion load**>>path:#_Support_Motion]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image028.png||alt="icon_load_pointmotion"]]
1179 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image029.png||alt="icon_PointSupportGroup"]] Point support group property|
1180 +|Modules where available|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]]
1181 +|Motion component direction|Parallel with Global Z axis in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1182 +| |Arbitrary direction in Global XY plane in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]
1183 +| |Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]]
1184 +|Rotation component direction|Arbitrary direction in Global XY plane in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1185 +| |Not available in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]
1186 +| |Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]]
1187 +|Geometry|- (insertion point)
1188 +|Available analysis results|[[**Reaction forces and moments**>>path:#_Reactions]]
1189 +|Load can be assigned|[[**Point support motion load**>>path:#_Support_Motion]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image028.png||alt="icon_load_pointmotion"]]
1190 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image031.png||alt="icon_LineSupport"]] Line support property|
1191 +|Modules where available|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]]
1192 +|Motion component direction|Parallel with Global Z axis in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1193 +| |Arbitrary direction in Global XY plane in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]
1194 +| |Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]]
1195 +|Rotation component direction|Arbitrary direction in Global XY plane in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1196 +| |Not available in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]
1197 +| |Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]]
1198 +|Geometry|Straight or curved reference line
1199 +|Available analysis results|[[**Reaction forces and moments**>>path:#_Reactions]]
1200 +|Load can be assigned|[[**Line support motion load**>>path:#_Support_Motion]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image032.png||alt="icon_load_linemotion"]]
1201 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image033.png||alt="icon_LineSupportGroup"]] Line support group property|
1202 +|Modules where available|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image030.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
1203 +|Motion component|Parallel with Global Z axis in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1204 +| |Arbitrary direction in Global XY plane in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]
1205 +| |(((
1206 +Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image030.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
1207 +
1208 +
1209 +
1210 +)))
1211 +|Rotation component|Arbitrary direction in Global XY plane in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1212 +| |Not available in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]
1213 +| |Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image030.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
1214 +|Geometry|Straight or curved reference line
1215 +|Available analysis results|[[**Reaction forces and moments**>>path:#_Reactions]]
1216 +|Load can be assigned|[[**Line support motion load**>>path:#_Support_Motion]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image032.png||alt="icon_load_linemotion"]]
1217 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image034.png||alt="icon_SurfaceSupport"]] Surface support group property|
1218 +|Modules where available|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image030.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
1219 +|Motion component direction|Parallel with Global Z axis in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1220 +| |Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image030.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
1221 +|Rotation component direction|Not available  [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image030.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
1222 +|Geometry|Arbitrary region shape; holes can be placed into it
1223 +|Available analysis results|**//Reaction forces//**
1224 +|Load can be assigned|[[**Surface support motion load**>>path:#_Support_Motion]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image035.png||alt="icon_load_surfacemot"]]
1225 +
1226 +Table: Properties by Support types
1227 +
1228 +**Single Support versus Support group**
1229 +
1230 +Single Support defines only one component in one step, whilst Support group places a group of more components in one step. Although single Supports can be combined and work as a group support, it is recommended to define multi-support conditions with Support group, because all support components can be set or modified later (with the [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image036.png]] //Properties// tool) inside one settings dialog.
1231 +
1232 +
1233 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image037.png]]
1234 +
1235 +Figure: A fully rigid support modeled by six single Support components or one Support group
1236 +
1237 +Special color-system differentiates //single Supports// from the //Support group// components. Whilst a single// Support// uses the color of the “Supports”// //[[**Object layer**>>path:#_Layer_Types]], the components of a //Support group// are displayed in the colors equivalent with the support’s //Local system// (//Settings > All > Display > Support //and //Local systems//).
1238 +
1239 +
1240 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image038.png||alt="figure_15_supportcolors"]]
1241 +
1242 +Figure: Color settings of support types
1243 +
1244 +**Definition steps**
1245 +
1246 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **While support definition, keep in mind not to create unstable situation! For example in 3D modules, model a hinged support under a wall with hinged line support added to a wall at its rigid edge or with rigid line support added to a wall at its hinged wall. In case of unstable situation the program sends a warning message during calculation.
1247 +
1248 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image039.png]]
1249 +
1250 +Figure: Modeling same wall support condition in two ways
1251 +
1252 +1. If needed (and available in the current FEM-Design module), set a proper position for the [[**working plane**.>>path:#_Working_Plane]]
1253 +1. Start the required support command from [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image040.png||alt="tabmenu_Structure"]] tabmenu and choose [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image041.png]] //Define//.
1254 +1. In case of single //Support//, choose the displacement type you would like to be define:
1255 +
1256 +* [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image042.png||alt="icon_supmotion"]] //Motion//
1257 +* [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image043.png||alt="icon_suprotat"]] //Rotation//
1258 +
1259 +
1260 +1. Set the support [[**properties**>>path:#_Supports_and_Connections]] as mentioned before in the applied support’s //Default settings// dialog. See the settings possibilities and options at [[**Properties (Non-Linear Behaviors)**>>path:#_Properties_(Non-Linear_Behaviors)]].
1261 +
1262 +In the settings dialog of a curved line support, the support direction has to set fixed or variable along the support’s reference line.
1263 +
1264 + [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image044.png||alt="figure_sup_curveddir"]]
1265 +
1266 +Figure: Possible support directions in case of curved reference line
1267 +
1268 +1. Define the required support component [[**direction**>>path:#_Direction]] for the single //Support// or set the reference system for the //Support group//.
1269 +1. Choose a [[**geometry**>>path:#_Geometry]] definition method for the support’s reference point/line/region.
1270 +1. Define the support in the model view based on the chosen geometry method.
1271 +
1272 +Optional steps:
1273 +
1274 +1. Modify the geometry with the //Edit// menu commands valid for line/region elements.
1275 +1. Modify the support properties with the [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image045.png]] //Properties// tool of the support’s tool palette.
1276 +1. Set the display settings of supports at //Settings > All > Display > Support//.
1277 +
1278 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image046.png]]
1279 +
1280 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] “**//Label//” represents the supports’ ID number generated by analysis/design calculation or by clicking //Refresh numbering// (//Tools// menu).
1281 +
1282 +Rotation support is displayed with symbol strongly different from motion representation.
1283 +
1284 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image047.png||alt="figure_14_supportsymbol"]]
1285 +
1286 +Figure: Typical symbols by support types
1287 +
1288 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **//Support groups// can also be separated from the //single Supports// by displaying their //Local system//.
1289 +
1290 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image048.png]]
1291 +
1292 +Figure: Local system separates a one-component Support group from a same directional single Support
1293 +
1294 +1. The supports are stored on “Supports” [[**Object layers**>>path:#_Layer_Types]]. At layer settings, the default color of the single //Supports// and pen width of all support types can be set. The color and the symbol line type (e.g. dotted) of selected supports can be modified by //Edit > //[[**Properties**>>path:#_Change_appearance]]// > Change appearance//.
1295 +
1296 +
1297 +
1298 +== Connection Objects ==
1299 +
1300 +**Connection types**
1301 +
1302 +The following table summarizes the available “connection model objects” and their main features in the different FEM-Design Modules.
1303 +
1304 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **[[**Edge connection**>>path:#edge_connection_plate]] is not a “connection object”. It is a definition tool for boundary connection conditions, which is available for [[**Plate**>>path:#_Plate]]/[[**Wall**>>path:#_Wall]], [[**Profiled panel**>>path:#_Profiled_panel]] and [[**Timber Panel**>>path:#_Timber_Panel]] elements. But, the [[**non-linear behavior and component settings**>>path:#_Properties_(Non-Linear_Behaviors)]] are valid for edge connections introduced for the supports and below mentioned connection elements. See the definition modes and possibilities of an [[**Edge connection at Plate**>>path:#edge_connection_plate]].
1305 +
1306 +The end connection property of the bar elements are also not “connection objects”. You can read more about them at the [[**Beam**>>path:#_Beam]], [[**Column**>>path:#_Column]] and [[**Fictitious bar** **connection**>>path:#_Fictitious_Bar]] settings.
1307 +
1308 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image049.png||alt="icon_PointPointCon"]] Point-point connection property|**Description**
1309 +|Modules where available|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image030.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
1310 +|Motion component direction|Parallel with Global Z axis in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1311 +| |Arbitrary direction in Global XY plane in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]
1312 +| |Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image030.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
1313 +|Rotation component direction|Arbitrary direction in Global XY plane in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1314 +| |Not available in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]
1315 +| |Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image030.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
1316 +|Geometry|- (insertion points)
1317 +|Available analysis results|**Connection forces and moments**
1318 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image050.png||alt="icon_LineLineCon"]] Line-line connection property|
1319 +|Modules where available|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image030.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
1320 +|Motion component|Parallel with Global Z axis in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1321 +| |Arbitrary direction in Global XY plane in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]
1322 +| |Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image030.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
1323 +|Rotation component|Arbitrary direction in Global XY plane in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]
1324 +| |Not available in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image024.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image025.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]
1325 +| |Arbitrary direction in [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image026.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image030.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
1326 +|Geometry|Straight or curved reference lines
1327 +|Available analysis results|**Connection forces and moments**
1328 +
1329 +Table: Properties by Connection types
1330 +
1331 +For the end points of the edge connections two options are available:
1332 +
1333 +* Separate end points from environment,
1334 +* Connect end point to environment.
1335 +
1336 +In all Shell Toolwindows this setting is available by choosing ‘Edge connection’ then clicking [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image051.png||alt="figure_leftMOUSE"]] on ‘End point behaviour’ **//[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image052.png]] //** button. The end point can be chosen in three steps by selecting the Plate or Wall, then the edge and finally the end point.
1337 +
1338 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image053.jpg]]
1339 +
1340 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] Using this function can solve problems like the one on the picture below:
1341 +
1342 +On the right side structure all edge connection end points are connected to the environment which cases difference between the shear force on the wall and the sum of shear forces on the plate panels, which should be in balance according to common sense and this is exactly the case on the left side structure where edge connection end points are separated from the environment.
1343 +
1344 +
1345 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image054.png]]
1346 +
1347 +
1348 +== Plastic calculation ==
1349 +
1350 +The plastic data can be set in the //Default settings/Data tab //of each above mentioned options. The figure shows where the feature is placed in the dialog.
1351 +
1352 +
1353 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image055.jpg]]
1354 +
1355 +
1356 +==== Line-line connection ====
1357 +
1358 +With the //Line-line connection// command, different connections can be defined between two regions having different positions in 3D (so not having common parts in the geometry model). Some typical examples:
1359 +
1360 +* **Hinged connection between regions having a gap**
1361 +
1362 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image072.png]]
1363 +
1364 +* **Slabs on different level**
1365 +
1366 +Instead of connecting two slabs with a //Wall// element, the connection can be modeled with the //Line-line connection// tool (if the internal stress and other results are not required in the wall).
1367 +
1368 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image073.png]]
1369 +
1370 +**Definition steps**
1371 +
1372 +1. Start [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image050.png||alt="icon_LineLineCon"]] //Line-line connection// command from [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image040.png||alt="tabmenu_Structure"]] tabmenu and choose [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image041.png]] //Define//.
1373 +
1374 + [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image074.png]]
1375 +
1376 +1. Set the properties of the new connection at [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image075.png||alt="icon_llcset"]] //Default settings//. See the settings possibilities and options at **Properties (Non-Linear Behaviors)**.
1377 +
1378 + [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image076.png]]
1379 +
1380 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] ** Applying a connection different from rigid state, the //Interface position// (//r//) is very important.
1381 +
1382 +([[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image063.wmz]] .).
1383 +
1384 +//r = distance between connection position and start point of definition ///
1385 +
1386 +//distance between start and end points of connection//
1387 +
1388 +
1389 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image077.png||alt="egerpad%20copy"]] The figure shows two different interface positions at hinged line-line connection between two plate regions: in the first example, the hinged line (the place of the interface) is on the edge of the left plate (//r,,s,,=r,,e,,=0//), and in the second example the interface position is in the middle (//r,,s,,=r,,e,,=0.5//). In both examples, the left plate is supported rigidly and the right one has simple support against to //Z//-directional motion. The //M,,x,, //moment diagrams show zero moments where the interface positions are placed.
1390 +
1391 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image078.png||alt="9999_interface%20position%20copy"]]
1392 +
1393 +In the settings dialog of a curved line support, the support direction has to set fixed or variable along the support’s reference line.
1394 +
1395 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image079.png||alt="figure_llc_curvedset"]]
1396 +
1397 +1. Set the system for the **direction** of the connection components.
1398 +1. Choose a **geometry** definition method for the first connection object’s reference line (axis).
1399 +1. Select the first object you would like to connect.
1400 +1. Define the first connection line object in the model view based on the chosen geometry method.
1401 +1. Choose a **geometry** definition method for the second connection object’s reference line (axis).
1402 +1. Define the second connection line object in the model view based on the chosen geometry method.
1403 +
1404 +Optional steps:
1405 +
1406 +1. Modify the connection properties with the [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image036.png]] //Properties// tool of the tool palette.
1407 +1. Add members to a selected connection or remove members from it with [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image066.png||alt="icon_editconnection"]] **Edit connected objects**.
1408 +1. Set the display settings of connections at //Settings > All > Display > Connections//. See the possibilities at **Point-point connection**.
1409 +1. The connections are stored on “Modeling tools” **Object layers**. At layer settings, the default color defines the connection label color.
1410 +
1411 +== Rigidity type ==
1412 +
1413 +This option is used by **Point support group, Line support group, Surface support group**//, //**Edge connection**// //in **3D Plate**// //and **Wall **structural objects, Point-point connection, Line-line connection, border// //and //panel// connection of **Timber** and **Profiled panels**. With rigidity type the user can define and load specific predefined spring constants.
1414 +
1415 +If the rigidity type is //Custom// the user can define the spring constants as in previous versions. To define a type the user has to choose the //Edit library…// option.
1416 +
1417 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image080.png]]
1418 +
1419 +After defining rigidity types, the defined spring constants will be registered in the Library and it can be loaded in the future.
1420 +
1421 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image081.png]]
1422 +
1423 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **There are some objects that use the same rigidity type library:
1424 +
1425 +* //Line – line connection, Edge connection (3D Plate, Wall), border //and //panel// connection of //Timber panels //and// Profiled panels//
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