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Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
2 {{toc/}}
3 {{/box}}
4
5 Fast auto design and check are available to find the most suitable steel bar profiles. All section shapes and classes - including class 4 profiles (slender sections) - can be checked for utilization. When modeling steel bars with 3D steel shell components, an auto design finds the proper thickness of the shell elements.
6
7 The table summarizes the available steel design features by FEM-Design module.
8
Fredrik Lagerström 201.1 9 (% class="table-hover" style="width:516px" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 10 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:170px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Design element type**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:151px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Design feature**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:62px" %)[[image:1585653000367-149.png]]|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:68px" %)[[image:1585653005373-969.png]]|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:62px" %)[[image:1585653010914-897.png]]
11 |(% style="width:170px" %)[[image:1585652787092-597.png]] //Steel Bar//|(% style="width:151px" %)//Auto design//|(% style="text-align:center; width:62px" %)[[image:1585653017267-997.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:68px" %)[[image:1585653021432-508.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:62px" %)[[image:1585653024373-352.png]]
12 |(% style="width:170px" %) |(% style="width:151px" %)//Manual design//|(% style="text-align:center; width:62px" %)[[image:1585653019098-174.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:68px" %)[[image:1585653023020-114.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:62px" %)[[image:1585653025839-878.png]]
13 |(% style="width:170px" %)[[image:1585652994519-156.png]] //Shell Model//|(% style="width:151px" %)//Auto design//|(% style="text-align:center; width:62px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:68px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:62px" %)[[image:1585653027225-956.png]]
14 |(% style="width:170px" %) |(% style="width:151px" %)//Manual design//|(% style="text-align:center; width:62px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:68px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:62px" %)[[image:1585653029231-967.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 15
16 Table: Steel design features by FEM-Design module
17
Fredrik Lagerström 197.3 18 = {{id name="Steel Bar"/}}Steel Bar =
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 19
20 Global** **//Auto (steel bar) design// (//Calculate > Design calculations > Auto design all structural elements//) finds the most suitable cross-section (from the profile range set at //Auto design > Parameters//) for all steel bars (columns, beams and truss members) based on their buckling length, stiffeners, calculation parameters, internal forces and detailed utilization calculations. With //Manual design// you can run quick utilization check for given profiles by bar elements and/or design groups. You can also do quick //Auto design// by elements and design groups only instead of global design. Of course, any number of design cycles is executable, so the global //Auto design// can be combined with both previous and additional element-based //Auto designs//.
21
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 22 (% class="table-bordered" style="width:863px" %)
23 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:46px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**No.**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:244px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Global steel bar design**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:286px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Element-based steel design**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:285px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Combined steel design**
24 |(% style="width:46px" %)1|(% style="width:244px" %)[[image:1585653335569-348.png]] Calculation parameters|(% style="width:286px" %)[[image:1585653395657-131.png]] Global //Analysis//|(% style="width:285px" %)[[image:1585653406580-206.png]] Calculation parameters
25 |(% style="width:46px" %)2|(% style="width:244px" %)[[image:1585653342083-533.png]] //Design group//|(% style="width:286px" %)[[image:1585653404253-498.png]] Calculation parameters|(% style="width:285px" %)[[image:1585653345774-816.png]] //Design group//
26 |(% style="width:46px" %)3|(% style="width:244px" %)[[image:1585653356186-514.png]] [[image:1585653414535-767.png]] //Auto design > Parameters//|(% style="width:286px" %)[[image:1585653343851-773.png]] //Design group//|(% style="width:285px" %)[[image:1585653366182-867.png]] [[image:1585653420228-806.png]] //Auto design > Parameters//
27 |(% style="width:46px" %)4|(% style="width:244px" %)[[image:1585653390033-860.png]] Global //Auto design//|(% style="width:286px" %)[[image:1585653357667-370.png]] [[image:1585653416268-549.png]] //Auto design > Parameters//|(% style="width:285px" %)[[image:1585653393231-466.png]] Global //Auto design//
Fredrik Lagerström 199.1 28 |(% style="width:46px" %)5|(% style="width:244px" %)[[image:1585653373155-845.png]] [[//Documentation//>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Documentation.WebHome]]|(% style="width:286px" %)[[image:1585653359638-555.png]] [[image:1585653452601-397.png]] //Auto design// by elements|(% style="width:285px" %)[[image:1585653361783-576.png]] [[image:1585653418161-343.png]] //Auto design > Parameters//
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 29 |(% style="width:46px" %)6|(% style="width:244px" %) |(% style="width:286px" %)[[image:1585653462586-867.png]] //Manual// //design// by elements|(% style="width:285px" %)[[image:1585653364720-610.png]] [[image:1585653430288-923.png]] //Auto design// by elements
30 |(% style="width:46px" %)7|(% style="width:244px" %) |(% style="width:286px" %)[[image:1585653470339-646.png]] //Apply design changes//|(% style="width:285px" %)[[image:1585653464271-136.png]] //Manual design// by elements
31 |(% style="width:46px" %)8|(% style="width:244px" %) |(% style="width:286px" %)[[image:1585653385299-391.png]] Global //Check//|(% style="width:285px" %)[[image:1585653471928-565.png]] //Apply design changes//
Fredrik Lagerström 199.1 32 |(% style="width:46px" %)9|(% style="width:244px" %) |(% style="width:286px" %)[[image:1585653375446-115.png]] [[//Documentation//>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Documentation.WebHome]]|(% style="width:285px" %)[[image:1585653387844-184.png]] Global //Check//
33 |(% style="width:46px" %)10|(% style="width:244px" %) |(% style="width:286px" %) |(% style="width:285px" %)[[image:1585653379131-325.png]] [[//Documentation//>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Documentation.WebHome]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 34
35 Table: Recommended steps by design alternatives
36
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 37 == Initial Calculation and Design Parameters ==
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 38
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 39 All bar design calculations needs internal forces from //Analysis// calculations applied for //Load combinations// or //Load-groups//, [[image:1585653527641-768.png]] //Buckling length// and initial design settings defined by [[image:1585653534035-284.png]] //Design calculation parameters//.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 40
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 41 [[image:1585653539785-232.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 42
43 Figure: Design calculation parameters
44
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 45 The //flexural buckling curves// (EN1993-1-1: 6.3.1.2) can be specified for each steel bar in Calculation parameters dialog or the user can let the program to calculate it as in the previous versions by selecting “Auto” option.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 46
47 The method for considering imperfections of bars has to be selected, there are three types:
48
49 * Ignore 2^^nd^^ order analysis: The internal forces comes from the 1^^st^^ order results.
50 * Consider 2^^nd^^ order analysis, if available: The internal forces comes from the 2^^nd^^ order results.
51 * 2^^nd^^ order internal forces + 1^^st^^ order design: The internal forces comes from the 2^^nd^^ order results, but the design calculation will be linear.
52
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 53 (% style="text-align:center" %)
54 [[image:1585653625140-439.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 55
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 56 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 57 Figure: Setting calculation parameters
58
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 59 |(% style="width:103px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1387px" %)For steel bars with varying section the “Auto” option cannot display the automatically calculated curve, since it is determined during the design calculation.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 60
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 61 |(% style="width:103px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1387px" %)When the section of a steel bar is modified, buckling curve options of the calculation parameter is reset to “Auto”
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 62
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 63 |(% style="width:103px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1387px" %)When buckling curve is calculated automatically, applied section is considered, if it exist.
64
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 65 //Convergence criteria// and the //maximum number of iteration steps// can be set for effective cross-section calculation of Class 4 steel bar section in Calculation parameters dialog.
66
67
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 68 |(% style="width:103px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1387px" %)In some cases the iteration for effective cross-section fails because of the too strong convergence criteria. In this case reducing its factor or increasing the number of the iteration steps may solve the problem.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 69
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 70 |(% style="width:103px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1387px" %)Lateral torsional buckling can be calculated using the formulas to general case instead of using the simplified method.When the general method is used for lateral torsional buckling calculation, the position of the load needs to be specified as well. Calculation method of the k,,ij,, interaction factors can be specified by selecting the design configuration option from the ribbon.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 71
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 72 For lateral torsional buckling the program can separate to top flange and bottom flange stability loss. In the following picture the top flange and it’s corresponding force is red and the bottom is blue.
73
74 [[image:1585653897756-170.png]]
75
76 [[image:1585653864181-921.png]]
77
78 [[image:1585653874937-809.png]]
79
80
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 81 Beta factors for all 4 direction-stability loss method are separate from each other.
82
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 83 [[image:1585653911563-415.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 84
85 To copy buckling lengths from one bar to another use the Copy buckling length command and:
86
87 * Select the types to copy
88 * Select the source bar
89 * Select the destination bar
90
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 91 [[image:1585653925026-645.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 92
93
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 94 |(% style="width:55px" %)(((
95 [[image:1585653936189-224.png]]
96 )))|(% style="width:1435px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 97 Stiffeners can be added manually to steel bars at any time during design (e.g. before //Auto design//, or between //Auto design// and final //Check//). Stiffeners can be defined element by element, but they can be copied among bar elements. Stiffener definition tools are:
98
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 99 * [[image:1585653964846-534.png]] creates given number of evenly distributed stiffeners on a defined length section,
100 * [[image:1585653970730-422.png]] creates stiffeners by given distance on a defined length section (in case the multiple of the distance does not fit in the section, the program distributes stiffeners with equal parts at the ends),
101 * [[image:1585653976146-643.png]] defines stiffeners one by one in given position,
102 * [[image:1585653981351-820.png]] copies stiffeners of a selected bar to other bars with the same length.
103 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 104
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 105 You can increase the number of stiffeners in more steps, if you inactivate [[image:1585653994855-683.png]] (//Do not delete the original//).
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 106
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 107 (% style="text-align:center" %)
108 [[image:1585653999999-142.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 109
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 110 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 111 Figure: Stiffeners
112
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 113 == Auto Design ==
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 114
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 115 |(% style="width:52px" %)(((
116 [[image:1585654027068-138.png]]
117 )))|(% style="width:1438px" %)Global// Auto design// gives utilization results and suitable profiles for all steel bars of the current project.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 118
Fredrik Lagerström 81.1 119 [[image:1585654045991-869.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 120
121 Figure: Global Auto design and utilization result
122
Fredrik Lagerström 93.1 123 |(% style="width:101px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1389px" %)(((
124 The recommended profile names can be displayed on screen by showing the “//Steel bar, applied quantity//” object layer, or click [[image:1585654110042-729.png]] //Design// tool of the //Auto design// and the parameters together with utilization results are available in table format. Utilization as colored figure (color palette) can be displayed by selecting //New result > Steel bar > Utilization//.
125 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 126
Fredrik Lagerström 93.1 127 |(% style="width:104px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1386px" %)Variable cross-section steel bars can’t be designed, just checked.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 128
129 Applied profiles are displayed in blue in the //Utilization// table, if they are assigned to the steel bars during design, otherwise black color represents the original/initial profiles.
130
131
Fredrik Lagerström 93.1 132 |(% style="width:80px" %)(((
133 [[image:1585654149668-849.png]]
134 )))|(% style="width:1410px" %)Element-based //Auto design// finds the most suitable profile of steel columns, beams and bars for selected unique or grouped members only from a range of available profiles defined by [[image:1585654169799-983.png]] //Parameters//. The design utilization can be limited between 10% and 100% with //Limit utilization//.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 135
Fredrik Lagerström 93.1 136 (% style="text-align:center" %)
137 [[image:1585654175373-259.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 138
Fredrik Lagerström 93.1 139 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 140 Figure: Range of available profiles for design
141
Fredrik Lagerström 93.1 142 To run element-based design for the load combinations or the maximum of load groups, select the required members and/or group with the //Auto design// command and click [[image:1585654188559-688.png]] //Design// tool. The quick process results recommended profiles and their utilization. Check the //Display table// box to have a look at the overall design results (see the figure before).
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 143
144 The upper table shows the design efficiency and the maximal utilization of the designed single members and groups based on the given design parameters. The bottom table displays the utilization details of the bar or the members of the group selected in the upper table.
145
146
Fredrik Lagerström 199.1 147 (% class="table-hover" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 93.1 148 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %) |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:574px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Meaning**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:717px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Note**
149 |[[image:1585654219128-709.png]]|(% style="width:574px" %)Suitable profile is available|(% style="width:717px" %)
150 |[[image:1585654225863-981.png]]|(% style="width:574px" %)Suitable profile is not available|(% style="width:717px" %)Modify the range of available profiles or steel materials
151 |[[image:image-20200331133035-1.png]]|(% style="width:574px" %)Suitable profile is available, but the utilization is over the //Limit utilization//|(% style="width:717px" %)
152 |Group|(% style="width:574px" %)ID of a single bar or a group name|(% style="width:717px" %)
153 |Design parameters|(% style="width:574px" %)The defined range of available profiles|(% style="width:717px" %)
154 |Applied profile|(% style="width:574px" %)Profile currently assigned to the bar|(% style="width:717px" %)
155 |Max|(% style="width:574px" %)Max. utilization of a single bar or the significant member of a group|(% style="width:717px" %)
156 |Min|(% style="width:574px" %)Max. utilization of the less significant group member|(% style="width:717px" %)
157 |Bar|(% style="width:574px" %)ID of a single bar or a group member|(% style="width:717px" %)
158 |RCS|(% style="width:574px" %)Resistance of cross-section: the maximum utilization from all strength calculations|(% style="width:717px" %)(((
159 According to Eurocode 3: 6.2.3 - 6.2.10
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 160 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 93.1 161 |FB|(% style="width:574px" %)Utilization for flexural buckling|(% style="width:717px" %)According to Eurocode 3: 6.3.1
162 |TFB|(% style="width:574px" %)Utilization for torsional-flexural buckling|(% style="width:717px" %)According to Eurocode 3: 6.3.1
163 |LTB|(% style="width:574px" %)Utilization for lateral torsional buckling|(% style="width:717px" %)According to Eurocode 3: 6.3.2.4
164 |SB|(% style="width:574px" %)Utilization for shear buckling|(% style="width:717px" %)According to Eurocode 3: 1-5: 5
165 |IA|(% style="width:574px" %)(((
166 Interaction (between normal force and bending)
167 )))|(% style="width:717px" %)According to Eurocode 3: 6.3.3
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 168
169 Table: The meaning of symbols, design parameters and utilization results
170
171 Quick redesign can be done inside the //Utilization// table:
172
Fredrik Lagerström 93.1 173 1. Select a bar or a design group in the upper table.
174 1. Modify the range of available profiles for the select element under //Parameters//.
175 1. Click //Design//.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 176
177 //Save /load default sections//
178
Fredrik Lagerström 93.1 179 (% style="text-align:center" %)
180 [[image:1585654286704-109.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 181
182 For each section type (e.g. IPE, HEA, CHS, etc.) a set of sections can be saved/loaded as default.
183
184 This will only work with //one type// cross-section (e.g. only HEA, or only KKR) selected. Otherwise, with //Save// command, the user can save a set of arbitrary sections into a file, and use them later for another model by //Load// command.
185
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 186 == Manual Design ==
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 187
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 188 |(% style="width:82px" %)[[image:1585654369126-597.png]]|(% style="width:1408px" %)With //Manual design// quick utilization check can be done for given steel profile and for selected steel beam, column, bar or design group only. Just, choose the load type (load combination or load group) and a profile name from the drop-down lists and select a bar, bars or group, and program displays detailed utilization results in table format.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 189
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 190 |(% style="width:104px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1386px" %)The meaning of the utilization components, the table content and features are the same as written before at //Auto design//. The program use the chosen profile for all selected bar elements.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 191
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 192 [[image:1585654421650-656.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 193
194 Figure: Quick check by Manual design
195
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 196 == Detailed Result ==
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 197
198 Utilization of steel bars can be displayed in the following cases:
199
200 * After global //Auto design//, you can display utilization of all steel bars checked for the recommended profiles.
201 * When running element-based //Auto design//, utilization can be displayed by designed elements.
202 * After //Manual design//, element-based //Check// displays utilization for selected elements.
203 * After global //Check// done for all bar elements having final cross-section.
204
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 205 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)No.|(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Global Auto design**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Element-based Auto des.**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Element-based Check**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Global Check**
206 |1|[[image:1585654467668-415.png]]// Calculate > Design calculation > Auto design all structural elements//|[[image:1585654540697-926.png]] //Auto design//|(((
207 [[image:1585654546499-492.png]] //Auto design// and/or
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 208
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 209 [[image:1585654532071-809.png]] //Manual design//
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 210 )))|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 211 [[image:1585654550973-239.png]] //Auto design// and/or
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 212
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 213 [[image:1585654533943-756.png]] //Manual design//
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 214 )))
215 |2|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 216 [[image:1585654490458-637.png]]// New result > Steel bar//
217 )))|[[image:1585654497465-658.png]]// New result > Steel bar//|[[image:1585654527003-278.png]] //Check//|[[image:1585654521036-969.png]] Apply changes
218 |3| | |[[image:1585654500812-499.png]] //New result > Steel bar//|[[image:1585654471339-281.png]] //Calculate > Design calculation > Auto design all structural elements//
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 219 |4| | | |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 220 [[image:1585654508830-980.png]] //New result > Steel bar//
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 221 )))
222
223 Table: Steps of displaying steel bar utilization by different design cases
224
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 225 |[[image:1585654569187-921.png]]|Utilization displayed with //New result// appears for all designed bars. The utilization components for a bar/design group can be displayed with //Detailed result//.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 226
227 //Detailed result// opens a new window in the current project after selecting a bar/group member, which displays:
228
229 * **Input data**
230 The figure displays the applied steel cross-section with its main calculation and material parameters.
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 231 \\[[image:1585654590787-377.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 232 Figure: Applied cross-section
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 233
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 234 * **Detailed calculation formulas**
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 235 Calculation details and final values are collected by checking types:
236 ** //Shear resistance// (Eurocode3: 1-1: 6.2.6, 6.2.8),
237 ** //Torsional resistance// (1-1: 6.2.7),
238 ** //Shear stress// (1-1: 6.2.6),
239 ** //Normal stress// (1-1: 6.2.1),
240 ** //Normal capacity// (1-1: 6.2.1),
241 ** //Flexural buckling //(1-1: 6.3.1),
242 ** //Torsional-flexural buckling //(1-1: 6.3.1),
243 ** //Lateral-torsional buckling //(1-1: 6.3.2.4),
244 ** //Interaction between normal force and bending// (1-1: 6.3.3.) and
245 ** //Shear buckling //(1-5: 5).
246 \\The proper results are displayed in green, while the red result warnings you to repeat design with new bar properties. The content of the utilization checks depends on //Display options//. Not relevant checks can also be hidden.
247 \\[[image:1585654617784-697.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 248 Figure: Utilization checks and formulas
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 249
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 250 * **Summary graph**
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 251 //Summary// graph is displayed with legend by default. Numeric values can be inquired in the calculation sections (set by //Design calculation parameters//).
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 252 \\[[image:1585654637081-726.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 253 Figure: Utilization summary
254
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 255 [[image:1585654653485-447.png]]// Tabmenu// contains the following tools and settings:
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 256
257 * **Selection of element to display**
258 You can choose a unique or a design group member from the drop-down lists to display its detailed results mentioned before. Each row displays the ID and the maximum utilization of a member. In case of a design group, “Maximum” means each check is displayed for the significant member having the maximum utilization for that check.
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 259 \\[[image:1585654758567-477.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 260 Figure: Selection of a unique or a group member
261 * **Selection of design load**
262 Depending on steel design was done for load combinations or load groups, a load combination or the maximum or a significant component of load groups can be selected for detailed results. Each row displays the name of the load combination/load group component and its utilization effect. “Maximum” means each check is displayed for the significant load combination or component of load groups having the maximum utilization for that check.
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 263 \\[[image:1585654775005-862.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 264 Figure: Selection from design loads
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 265 * [[image:1585654862323-747.png]]** Auto design**
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 266 Quick //Auto design// can be done for the currently displayed unique/group member. Its design parameters can be set/modified in the appearing dialog, and then clicking //OK// starts steel design that updates all detailed result figures and formulas.
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 267 * [[image:1585654855258-686.png]]** Manual design**
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 268 //Manual design// can be launched directly for the currently displayed unique member /group.
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 269 * [[image:1585654845984-672.png]] **Display options**
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 270 The content and the appearance of the detailed result can be set with //Display options//. You can show only the final equation without details of the different checks (//Hide details//).
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 271 [[image:1585654839027-624.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 272 Figure: Display options of Detailed result
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 273 * **Go to**
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 274 Navigate in the detailed result window by selecting the required design type in the drop-down list. It is useful when you are in zoomed view.
275
Fredrik Lagerström 199.1 276 [[image:1585654880904-396.png]] Click //Tools > Add view to document// to place all figures, fomulas and summary table or specified details only into [[//Documentation//>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Documentation.WebHome]].
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 277
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 278 == Fire design for steel bars ==
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 279
280 //Fire design// gives the opportunity to check and design steel bars for fire effects according to EN 1993-1-2.
281
282 Launch //Steel design/ Steel bar, fire design .// To start //Fire design// it needs some new input data of the bars, and a special load combination and/or load group must be defined.
283
284 * A „+Fire” type load case has to be defined in the //Load cases// dialog.
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 285 [[image:1585654903292-534.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 286 * For maximum of load groups calculations, an accidental load group must be defined that contains the „+Fire” type load case.
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 287 [[image:1585654913288-557.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 288 * For maximum of load combinations calculations, accidental load combinations must be defined that contains the „+Fire” type load case.
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 289 [[image:1585654926562-624.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 290 * The effects (internal forces) are calculated from accidental load combinations, where fire is the accidental effect. Resistance of bar is calculated by using reduced yield strength and elasticity modulus for steel at the elevated temperature.
291
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 292 //Fire design// contains //Calculation parameter, Check, Design group, Auto design //and// Manual design //commands.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 293
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 294 === **Calculation parameter** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 295
296 Explanation of data in calculation parameters are in EN 1993-1-2:3, 4 and EN 1992-1-2:3.
297
298 „Deflection criterion is essential” option is available for Danish national annex only.
299
300 [[image:image-20200331125036-34.png]]
301
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 302 === **Check** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 303
304 It works in exactly the same way as in case of steel bar design.
305
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 306 === **Design group** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 307
308 It works in exactly the same way as in case of normal steel bar design, except that fire design parameter and fire design calculation parameter of two bars must match to be placed into the same design group.
309
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 310 === **Auto design** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 311
312 There are two design options:
313
314 * //Design for fire protection material//
315 The design parameter contains the fire protection material, which can be selected from a library (see later). Its //minimal and maximal thickness// and an increment value, which is used by the automatic design procedure to find the minimal necessary thickness of the protection material, can be given by the User
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 316 * //Calculate maximum temperature// 
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 317 The //Temperature// //step //for maximum temperature calculation can be defined by the User.
318
319 //Limit utilization// can also be set in the Steel bar - fire design parameter dialog
320
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 321 [[image:1585654983150-702.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 322
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 323 === **Manual design** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 324
325 Fire protection material (from a library, see later), its thickness, or the //Maximum member temperature// can be selected in Steel bar, fire protection dialog for Manual Design..
326
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 327 [[image:1585655000724-715.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 328
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 329 === **Fire protection material library** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 330
331 It is available by clicking on „Edit library…” item in the material list of fire protection parameter in Auto and Manual design dialogs.
332
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 333 [[image:1585655010127-795.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 334
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 335 === **Results** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 336
337 Utilization results are available to display on the model and to list.
338
339 A new result “Max. of combinations/Bar, Combined utilization summary” is available, where the maximum utilization of steel bars for both normal and fire check is displayed
340
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 341 [[image:1585655021923-512.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 342
343
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 344 [[image:1585655030224-469.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 345
Fredrik Lagerström 197.3 346 = {{id name="Shell Model"/}}Shell Model =
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 347
348 In FEM-Design, a steel bar can be modeled as a real 3D element defined from steel plates.
349
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 350 |[[image:light.png]]|To convert a bar element to 3D shells apply the //Steel bar, shell model// tool of the [[image:1585655069838-323.png]] //Tabmenu//.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 351
352 Global** **//Auto (Shell model) design// (//Calculate > Design calculations > Auto design all structural elements//) finds the most suitable thickness (from a thickness range set at //Auto design > Parameters//) for all steel plates of the shell model based on internal forces, stability check and detailed utilization calculations. With //Manual design// you can run quick utilization check of given thickness values for selected shell models or their design groups. You can also do quick //Auto design// by shell elements and design groups only instead of global design. Of course, any number of design cycles is executable, so the global //Auto design// can be combined with both previous and additional element-based //Auto designs//.
353
354
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 355 (% style="width:854px" %)
356 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:48px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**No.**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:292px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Global steel bar design**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:257px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Element-based steel design**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:254px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Combined steel design**
357 |(% style="width:48px" %)1|(% style="width:292px" %)[[image:1585655110330-554.png]] //Structure > Steel bar,shell model//|(% style="width:257px" %)[[image:1585655112103-544.png]] //Structure > Steel bar,shell model//|(% style="width:254px" %)[[image:1585655114374-463.png]] //Structure > Steel bar,shell model//
358 |(% style="width:48px" %)2|(% style="width:292px" %)[[image:1585655129235-663.png]] //Design group//|(% style="width:257px" %)[[image:1585655158010-179.png]] Global //Stability analysis//|(% style="width:254px" %)[[image:1585655132593-110.png]] //Design group//
359 |(% style="width:48px" %)3|(% style="width:292px" %)[[image:1585655138550-962.png]] [[image:1585655180397-125.png]] //Auto design > Parameters//|(% style="width:257px" %)[[image:1585655130886-154.png]] //Design group//|(% style="width:254px" %)[[image:1585655142069-589.png]] [[image:1585655185013-286.png]] Design //Parameters//
360 |(% style="width:48px" %)4|(% style="width:292px" %)[[image:1585655155928-228.png]] Global //Auto design//|(% style="width:257px" %)[[image:1585655140288-697.png]] [[image:1585655181897-706.png]] //Auto design > Parameters//|(% style="width:254px" %)[[image:1585655161783-439.png]] Global //Auto design//
Fredrik Lagerström 201.1 361 |(% style="width:48px" %)5|(% style="width:292px" %)[[image:1585655169306-415.png]] [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)//Documentation//>>path:/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/get/Manuals/User%20Manual/Steel%20Design/?sheet=CKEditor.ResourceDispatcher&outputSyntax=plain&language=en&type=doc&reference=Manuals.User+Manual.Documentation.WebHome&typed=true]]|(% style="width:257px" %)[[image:1585655143460-852.png]] [[image:1585655192442-628.png]] //Auto design// by elements|(% style="width:254px" %)[[image:1585655148998-886.png]] [[image:1585655186607-680.png]] //Auto design > Parameters//
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 362 |(% style="width:48px" %)6|(% style="width:292px" %) |(% style="width:257px" %)[[image:1585655199189-297.png]] //Manual design// by elements|(% style="width:254px" %)[[image:1585655146290-327.png]] [[image:1585655194279-860.png]] //Auto design// by elements
363 |(% style="width:48px" %)7|(% style="width:292px" %) |(% style="width:257px" %)[[image:1585655206657-954.png]] //Apply design changes//|(% style="width:254px" %)[[image:1585655200908-342.png]] //Manual design// by elements
364 |(% style="width:48px" %)8|(% style="width:292px" %) |(% style="width:257px" %)[[image:1585655159689-227.png]] Global //Check//|(% style="width:254px" %)[[image:1585655208027-158.png]] //Apply design changes//
Fredrik Lagerström 201.1 365 |(% style="width:48px" %)9|(% style="width:292px" %) |(% style="width:257px" %)[[image:1585655170704-910.png]] [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)//Documentation//>>path:/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/get/Manuals/User%20Manual/Steel%20Design/?sheet=CKEditor.ResourceDispatcher&outputSyntax=plain&language=en&type=doc&reference=Manuals.User+Manual.Documentation.WebHome&typed=true]]|(% style="width:254px" %)[[image:1585655163454-965.png]] Global //Check//
366 |(% style="width:48px" %)10|(% style="width:292px" %) |(% style="width:257px" %) |(% style="width:254px" %)[[image:1585655173659-102.png]] [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)//Documentation//>>path:/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/get/Manuals/User%20Manual/Steel%20Design/?sheet=CKEditor.ResourceDispatcher&outputSyntax=plain&language=en&type=doc&reference=Manuals.User+Manual.Documentation.WebHome&typed=true]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 367
368 Table: Recommended steps by design alternatives
369
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 370 |[[image:warning.png]]|//Stability analysis// is required to get utilization check of steel bar-shell models. Global //Auto design// automatically runs stability analysis for the entire structure.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 371
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 372 == Auto Design ==
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 373
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 374 [[image:1585655270335-250.png]] Global// Auto design// gives utilization results and suitable thickness for all steel plates of shell models.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 375
376
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 377 (% style="text-align:center" %)
378 [[image:1585655276057-309.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 379
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 380 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 381 Figure: Global Auto design and utilization result
382
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 383 |(% style="width:116px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1374px" %)(((
384 The recommended thickness values can be displayed on screen by showing the “//Steel bar, shell model, applied quantity//” object layer, or click [[image:1585655329187-466.png]] //Design// tool of the //Auto design// and the thickness values together with utilization results are available in table format. Utilization as colored figure (color palette) can be displayed by selecting //New result > Steel bar, shell model > Utilization//.
385 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 386
387 Applied thickness values are displayed in blue in the //Utilization// table, if they are assigned to the steel shell parts during design, otherwise black color represents the original/initial thickness.
388
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 389 |(% style="width:63px" %)[[image:1585655357850-434.png]]|(% style="width:1427px" %)Element-based //Auto design// finds the most suitable thickness of steel plates for selected unique or grouped shell models only from a range of available thicknesses defined by [[image:1585655373290-257.png]]// Parameters//.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 390
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 391 [[image:1585655378001-337.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 392
393 Figure: Range of available thickness values for design
394
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 395 To run element-based design for the load combinations, select the required shell element and/or element group with the //Auto design// command and click [[image:1585655391773-363.png]] //Design// tool. The quick process results recommended thickness values and the utilization of the shell model elements. Check the //Display table// box to have a look at the overall design results (see before).
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 396
397 The upper table shows the design efficiency and the maximal utilization of the designed single element and groups based on the found thickness values. The bottom table displays the utilization details of the shell model element or the members of a group selected in the upper table.
398
Fredrik Lagerström 200.1 399 (% class="table-hover" style="width:648px" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 400 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:156px" %) |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:489px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Meaning**
401 |(% style="width:156px" %)[[image:1585655414208-719.png]]|(% style="width:489px" %)Suitable thickness is available
402 |(% style="width:156px" %)[[image:1585655420588-215.png]]|(% style="width:489px" %)(((
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 403 Suitable thickness is not available
404
405 (Modify the range of available thicknesses or steel materials.)
406 )))
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 407 |(% style="width:156px" %)Group|(% style="width:489px" %)ID of a single element or a group name
408 |(% style="width:156px" %)Design parameters|(% style="width:489px" %)The defined range of available thicknesses
409 |(% style="width:156px" %)Applied thicknesses|(% style="width:489px" %)Thickness currently assigned to the shells
410 |(% style="width:156px" %)Max|(% style="width:489px" %)Max. utilization of a model element or the significant member of a group
411 |(% style="width:156px" %)Min|(% style="width:489px" %)Max. utilization of the less significant group member
412 |(% style="width:156px" %)Bar|(% style="width:489px" %)ID of the designed single bar or a group member
413 |(% style="width:156px" %)Stress|(% style="width:489px" %)Stress utilization
414 |(% style="width:156px" %)FBS|(% style="width:489px" %)Utilization for flexural buckling around the stiff axis
415 |(% style="width:156px" %)FBW|(% style="width:489px" %)Utilization for flexural buckling around the weak axis
416 |(% style="width:156px" %)TB|(% style="width:489px" %)Utilization for torsional buckling
417 |(% style="width:156px" %)LTB|(% style="width:489px" %)Utilization for lateral torsional buckling
418 |(% style="width:156px" %)LB|(% style="width:489px" %)Utilization for local buckling
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 419
420 Table: The meaning of symbols and utilization results
421
422 Quick redesign can be done inside the //Utilization// table:
423
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 424 1. Select a bar or a design group in the upper table.
425 1. Modify the range of available plate thicknesses for the select element under //Parameters//.
426 1. Click //Design//.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 427
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 428 == Manual Design ==
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 429
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 430 |[[image:1585655460640-282.png]]|With //Manual design// quick utilization check can be done for custom (also different) thickness values of selected steel plates (or their groups). Just select steel plate(s) and set a thickness value in the appeared dialog. Run //Check// calculation to run and display utilization check for the modified plates according to their new thickness values.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 431
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 432 |(% style="width:109px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1381px" %)The meaning of the utilization components, the table content and features are the same as written before at //Auto design//.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 433
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 434 [[image:1585655503440-284.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 435
436 Figure: Quick check by Manual design
437
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 438 == Detailed Result ==
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 439
440 Utilization of steel bar-shell models can be displayed in the following cases:
441
442 * After global //Auto design//, you can display utilization of all steel shell models.
443 * When running element-based //Auto design//, utilization can be displayed by designed elements.
444 * After //Manual design//, element-based //Check// displays utilization for selected elements.
445 * After global //Check// done for all bar-shell elements having final plate thicknesses.
446
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 447 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**No.**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Global Auto design**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Element-based Auto des.**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Element-based Check**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Global Check**
448 |1|[[image:1585655544674-590.png]] //Calculate > Design calculation > Auto design all structural elements//|[[image:1585655610365-993.png]] //Auto design//|(((
449 [[image:1585655611866-505.png]] //Auto design// and/or
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 450
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 451 [[image:1585655620960-324.png]] //Manual design//
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 452 )))|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 453 [[image:1585655613472-125.png]] //Auto design// and/or
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 454
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 455 [[image:1585655622549-398.png]] //Manual design//
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 456 )))
457 |2|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 458 [[image:1585655592310-385.png]] //New result > Steel bar, shell model//
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 459 )))|(((
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 460 [[image:1585655594347-587.png]] //New result > Steel bar, shell model//
461 )))|[[image:1585655628046-475.png]] //Check//|[[image:1585655604500-868.png]] Apply changes
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 462 |3| | |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 463 [[image:1585655596493-206.png]] //New result > Steel bar, shell model//
464 )))|[[image:1585655548438-395.png]] //Calculate > Design calculation > Auto design all structural elements//
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 465 |4| | | |(((
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 466 [[image:1585655598308-419.png]] //New result > Steel bar, shell model//
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 467 )))
468
469 Table: Steps of displaying steel bar-shell model utilization by different design cases
470
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 471 |[[image:1585655641962-654.png]]|Utilization displayed with //New result// appears for all designed bar-shell models. The utilization components for an element/design group can be displayed with //Detailed result//.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 472
473 //Detailed result// opens two new windows in the current project after selecting a shell model or group member, which display:
474
475 * **Applied shell thicknesses **(//Detailed result// window)
476 A list displays the applied thicknesses by the steel plate components.
477 * **Detailed calculation formulas **(//Detailed result// window)
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 478 Calculation details and final values are collected by checking types: //Stresses//, //Flexural buckling, stiff/weak direction//, //Torsional buckling//, //Lateral torsional buckling //and //Local buckling//. The proper results are displayed in green, while the red result warnings you to repeat design with new thickness values. The content of the utilization checks depends on (% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)//Display options//(%%) and //Buckling mode// (see later). Not relevant checks can also be hidden.
479 \\[[image:1585655677097-404.png]]
480 \\Figure: Utilization checks and formulas
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 481 * **Summary graph **(//Detailed result// window)
482 //Summary// graph is displayed with legend by default.
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 483 [[image:1585655698189-890.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 484 Figure: Utilization summary
485 * **Buckling mode** (//Buckling mode// window)
Fredrik Lagerström 28.1 486 Based on stability analysis, the calculated shapes of the bar-shell model can be displayed in 3D view. Just select the required shape from the //Shape// drop-down list of the navigator panel and the program automatically shows the deformed shape in the current //display mode//. //Buckling mode// can be also chosen for the selected shape that affects on the design check content of the //Detailed result// window. You can add numeric values to the deformed shape or run buckling animation.
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 487 [[image:1585655719486-312.png]]
488 Figure: Buckling shape
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 489
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 490 [[image:1585655744718-515.png]]// Tabmenu// contains the following tools and settings for the //Detailed result// window:
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 491
492 * **Selection of element to display**
493 You can choose a unique or a design group member from the drop-down lists to display its detailed results mentioned before. Each row displays the ID and the maximum utilization of a member. In case of a design group, “Maximum” means the significant member having the maximum utilization.
494 * **Selection of design load**
495 A load combination can be selected for detailed results. Each row displays the name of the available load combination and its utilization effect. “Maximum” means the significant load combination.
496 * (((
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 497 [[image:1585655784875-736.png]] **Auto design**
498 Quick //Auto design// can be done for the currently displayed unique/group member. Set the thickness of the steel plate components, and then click //OK// to start design that updates all detailed result figures and tables.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 499 )))
500 * (((
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 501 [[image:1585655808924-391.png]]** Display options**
502 The content and the appearance of the detailed result can be set with //Display options//.
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 503 )))
504 * (((
Fredrik Lagerström 197.1 505 [[image:1585655816765-192.png]]** Go to**
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 506 Navigate in the //Detailed result// window by selecting the required design type in the drop-down list. It is useful when you are in zoomed view.
507 )))
508
Fredrik Lagerström 201.1 509 [[image:1585655826034-120.png]] Click //Tools > Add view to document// to place all calculation and check formulas into [[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)//Documentation//>>path:/xwiki/wiki/femdesignwiki/get/Manuals/User%20Manual/Steel%20Design/?sheet=CKEditor.ResourceDispatcher&outputSyntax=plain&language=en&type=doc&reference=Manuals.User+Manual.Documentation.WebHome&typed=true]](%%).
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