<
From version < 280.1 >
edited by Fredrik Lagerström
on 2020/03/30 16:44
To version < 281.1 >
edited by Fredrik Lagerström
on 2020/03/30 16:45
>
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797 797  
798 798  Concealed bar allows for designing certain parts of a shell as a bar. For example, a wall region over a door opening can be considered as a concealed beam. The internal forces from shell results are converted to bar internal forces and the checking is done on the bar.
799 799  
800 +To define a concealed bar select the [[image:1585579478922-631.png]] option then  //Specify concealed bar// [[image:1585579483915-763.png]] , then select the RC slab or wall and specify the diagonal corners of a rectangulare region (or select exsisting rectangular region).
801 +
802 +The bar’s local co-ordinate system by default is parallel with the corresponding region’s local system, but there is an option to define skew concealed bar.
803 +
804 +[[image:1585579490462-979.png]]
805 +
806 +|(% style="width:110px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1340px" %)The concealed bar’s reinforcement is not considered in the shell’s applied reinforcement.
807 +
808 +
809 +
810 += Punching Reinforcement =
811 +
812 +Punching check and design can be done according to Eurocode 2 both in FEM-Design [[image:1585578320296-696.png]] //Plate// and [[image:1585578325188-763.png]]** **//3D Structure// modules. It is recommended to perform after **Surface reinforcement design**, because surface reinforcement influences punching calculations.
813 +
814 +The punching regions are automatically defined by the program at the plate – coumn intersections and you can define them manually.
815 +
816 +* [[image:1585578366463-730.png]] Punching design/check can be done at any point where a punching region is exists. Design and check can be done by these punching zones or by their **design groups**.
817 +
818 +|(% style="width:110px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1340px" %)The program does not generate punching objects for columns that are connected to more than one slab at the same level.
819 +
820 +Initial properties are needed to be set for punching zones. Use [[image:1585578410543-339.png]] //Calculation parameters// to define the followings:
821 +
822 +[[image:1585578416186-554.png]]
823 +
824 +Figure:Setting β values for punching objects
825 +
826 +* **Beta (β)**
827 +According to Eurocode 2, //β// coefficient is taken into account as the effect of any eccentricity of loading. Its value depends on column position. The program offers default standard values for column positions: for corner (β=1.5), for edge (β=1.4) and inside columns (β=1.15). These standard values have to de added manually by selected punching zones or by their groups. If you neglect //β// values, choosing //Calculate automatically// defines them during design/check process and gives accurate results for //β// coefficients (see **Detailed results**).
828 +* **Distance of calculated perimeters (d)**
829 +\\[[image:1585578440697-758.png]]
830 +\\This value is used in slightly different ways in checking and design process:
831 +** Checking:      perimeters to check between u,,1,, and u,,out(,ef) ,,are generated with d distance from each other.
832 +** Design:          searching for u,,out(,ef) ,,perimeter starts from u,,1,, and distance of checked perimeters from the column is increased by the d distance until u,,out(,ef) ,,is found.
833 +
834 +|(% style="width:90px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1400px" %)Calculation parameters are displayed on the model view by the //Punching, calculation parameters// object layer.
835 +
836 +== Auto Design ==
837 +
838 +[[image:1585578552569-657.png]] Global// Auto design// gives utilization results for punching. Auto design applies the **initial punching reinforcement settings**.
839 +
840 +|(% style="width:110px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1340px" %)Punching design always deletes the existing reinforcement and generates new one.
841 +
842 +=== **Defining punching regions** ===
843 +
844 +When clicking on the [[image:1585578595849-773.png]] , the dialog appears:
845 +
846 +[[image:1585578602516-612.png]]
847 +Figure: Punching region toolwindow
848 +
849 +First the origin of the local system should be specified, which is also the calculation point for punching. The punching force is taken from the finite element corner node closest to the local system’s origin.
850 +
851 +|(% style="width:90px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1400px" %)**Before analysis, the user should place a fixed point in Finite element tab, where a punching calculation is planned to be performed, because in this way it will be surely a corner node, leading to higher precision in punching calculation.**
852 +
853 +[[image:1585578642562-501.png]]
854 +Figure: Punching region example
855 +
856 +If you pick a punching force calculation point away from the region the following appears:
857 +
858 +[[image:1585578649408-130.png]]
859 +
860 +The punching regions can be modified like with Modify region command and **Reset** back to original shape if the punching region was automatically generated.
861 +
862 +[[image:1585578655312-200.png]]
863 +
864 +Punching utilization results can be displayed for the entire model with //New result > RC punching > Utilization//. Maximum utilization in table format can be also shown with //Numeric value//. Detailed utilization results can be asked by unique or grouped punching zones with [[image:1585578664025-752.png]] (see later). Different colors display the adequacy of the checked punching zones.
865 +
866 +[[image:1585578671207-915.png]]
867 +
868 +Figure: Global Auto design and its result
869 +
870 +[[image:1585578689231-274.png]] Element-based //Auto design// checks the utilizations against punching and finds required reinforcement for selected zones and/or design groups of zones. Initial settings can be set for required reinforcement by bended bar, circularly placed stirrup and open stirrup types with the [[image:1585578702891-400.png]] //Parameters// tool of //Auto design//.
871 +
872 +(% style="text-align:center" %)
873 +[[image:1585578707506-874.png]]
874 +
875 +(% style="text-align: center;" %)
876 +Figure: Design parameters by punching reinforcement type
877 +
878 +The symbols of the design parameters are stored on the //Punching, design parameters// object layer.
879 +
880 +To run element-based design for the load combinations or the maximum of load groups, select the required zones and/or groups with the //Auto design// command and click [[image:1585578723384-537.png]] //Design// tool. The quick process runs detailed utilization and finds the suitable bar diameters for the additional reinforcement.
881 +
882 +Check the tool palette’s //Display table// box to have a look at the overall utilization results.
883 +
884 +[[image:1585578735628-602.png]]
885 +
886 +Figure: Quick summary of Auto design results
887 +
888 +|(% style="width:90px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1400px" %)The ID of design groups can be shown with the //Punching, design groups// object layer.
889 +
890 +The upper table shows the design efficiency and the maximal utilization of the designed punching zones based on the given design parameters. The bottom table displays the utilization details of elements or design members.
891 +
892 +(% style="width:872px" %)
893 +|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:195px" %) |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:676px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Meaning**
894 +|(% style="width:195px" %)[[image:1585578773670-419.png]]|(% style="width:676px" %)RC column is suitable for punching without or with shear reinforcement
895 +|(% style="width:195px" %)[[image:1585578780446-407.png]]|(% style="width:676px" %)(((
896 +Suitable shear reinforcement is not available
897 +
898 +Note: Modify the slabs’ surface reinforcement or the design parameters.
899 +)))
900 +|(% style="width:195px" %)Group|(% style="width:676px" %)ID of a unique punching zone or design group
901 +|(% style="width:195px" %)Design parameters|(% style="width:676px" %)The suitable bar diameter and other design parameters as the reinforcement type
902 +|(% style="width:195px" %)Total weight|(% style="width:676px" %)(((
903 +* The “-“ symbol displays that no shear reinforcement is applied
904 +* Total weight of applied punching reinforcement
905 +)))
906 +|(% style="width:195px" %)Max|(% style="width:676px" %)Max. utilization of a unique zone or the significant zone of a group
907 +|(% style="width:195px" %)Min|(% style="width:676px" %)Max. utilization of the less significant group member
908 +|(% style="width:195px" %)Punching|(% style="width:676px" %)ID of a unique column or a design group member
909 +|(% style="width:195px" %)CC|(% style="width:676px" %)Utilization for concrete compress
910 +|(% style="width:195px" %)CS|(% style="width:676px" %)Utilization for concrete shear
911 +|(% style="width:195px" %)RS|(% style="width:676px" %)Utilization for reinforcement shear
912 +
913 +Table: The meaning of symbols, design parameters and utilization results
914 +
915 +Quick redesign can be done inside the //Utilization// table:
916 +
917 +1. Select a punching zone or a design group in the upper table.
918 +1. Modify the design parameters of the current elements under //Parameters//.
919 +1. Click //Design//.
920 +
921 +|[[image:light.png]]|**Detailed result** summarizes the applied formulas by the design modes and display the applied shear reinforcement (if needed) drawing too.
922 +
923 +== Manual Design ==
924 +
925 +[[image:1585578877098-106.png]]// Manual design// gives tools to define new (applied) punching reinforcement in concrete plates, or to modify/redefine the reinforcement generated by //Auto design//.
926 +
927 +The rules of new reinforcement definition, if predefined reinforcement already exists from //Auto design//:
928 +
929 +* new same-type reinforcement will be added to applied reinforcement,
930 +* new different type reinforcement always overwrites the previously defined one, and
931 +* new “open stirrup”-type reinforcement always overwrites the previously defined reinforcement even if it was “open stirrup”.
932 +
933 +|(% style="width:72px" %)[[image:1585578927902-910.png]]|(% style="width:1418px" %)(((
934 +First choose the type of the new reinforcement. If you would like to modify/refine a previously defined (generated by //Auto design// or defined by //Manual design// in an earlier phase) reinforcement, you also need to set the required type from the drop-down list of //Manual design//. The [[image:1585578970140-217.png]] //Properties// tool of //Manual design// can be used for modifying actions.
935 +
936 +The tools of //Manual design// depends on the selected reinforcement type.
937 +)))
938 +
939 +=== **Bended bar** ===
940 +
941 +First set the reinforcement properties under //Default settings//, and choose the bar direction according to the local system directions of the related column. Then select the punching zone you would like to be reinforced (with totally new or additional reinforcement) and place the new bars.
942 +
943 +[[image:1585579007646-450.png]]
944 +
945 +Figure: New bended bar
946 +
947 +=== **Stirrup, circular** ===
948 +
949 +First set the reinforcement properties under //Default settings//, then select the punching zone you would like to be reinforced, and finally define the circular form with its inner radius.
950 +
951 +[[image:1585579014876-264.png]]
952 +
953 +Figure: New stirrups in circular shape
954 +
955 +=== **Stirrup, open** ===
956 +
957 +First set the reinforcement properties under //Default settings//, then select a geometrical shape (e.g. rectangular, circular, polygonal) for the stirrup position. Select the punching zone you would like to be reinforced, and finally define the shape in the model view.
958 +
959 +[[image:1585579028980-429.png]]
960 +
961 +Figure: New open stirrups
962 +
963 +|(% style="width:110px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1340px" %)In case of design groups, the applied reinforcement of the **group Master** is editable only. Other group members have symbolic reinforcement figure.
964 +
965 +=== (% style="color:inherit; font-family:inherit; font-size:23px" %)**Stud rail (general and PSB product)**(%%)**   ** ===
966 +
967 +First set the reinforcement properties, placement shape under //Default settings//, then set the number of studs and select punching region to place the studs.
968 +
969 +[[image:1585579098938-163.png]]
970 +
971 +Figure: New PSB studs
972 +
973 +Running global// //(//Calculate > Design calculations > Check//) or element-based //Check// the program gives utilization result for the applied punching reinforcement.
974 +
975 +== Detailed Result ==
976 +
977 +Utilization of punching reinforcement can be displayed in the following cases:
978 +
979 +* After global //Auto design//, you can display utilization calculated from the suggested applied reinforcement.
980 +* When running element-based //Auto design//, utilization can be displayed by designed elements.
981 +* After //Manual design//, element-based //Check// displays utilization for selected zones.
982 +* Global //Check// done for final applied reinforcement.
983 +
984 +|No.|**Global Auto design**|**Element-based Auto des.**|**Element-based Check**|**Global Check**
985 +|1|[[image:1585579122274-794.png]] //Calculate > Design calculation > Auto design all structural elements//|[[image:1585579198248-281.png]] //Auto design//|(((
986 +[[image:1585579132329-870.png]] //Auto design// and/or
987 +
988 +[[image:1585579157410-183.png]] //Manual design//
989 +)))|(((
990 +[[image:1585579134972-965.png]] //Auto design// and/or
991 +
992 +[[image:1585579160039-804.png]] //Manual design//
993 +)))
994 +|2|(((
995 +[[image:1585579150594-818.png]] //New result > RC punching//
996 +)))|(((
997 +[[image:1585579148186-362.png]] //New result > RC punching//
998 +)))|[[image:1585579192786-380.png]] //Check//|[[image:1585579203541-107.png]] Apply changes
999 +|3| | |(((
1000 +[[image:1585579145707-274.png]] //New result > RC punching//
1001 +)))|[[image:1585579125749-481.png]] //Calculate > Design calculation > Check all structural elements//
1002 +|4| | | |(((
1003 +[[image:1585579143805-878.png]] //New result > RC punching//
1004 +)))
1005 +
1006 +Table: Steps of displaying punching utilization by different design cases
1007 +
1008 +[[image:1585579213113-622.png]] Utilization displayed with //New result// appears for all designed punching zones. The utilization components with calculation formulas and the applied reinforcement (if needed) can be displayed with //Detailed result//.
1009 +
1010 +//Detailed result// opens a new window in the current project after selecting a unique zone or a member zone of a design group, which display:
1011 +
1012 +* **Design parameters and applied reinforcement**
1013 +The figure displays the calculation perimeters, the design parameters and the applied reinforcement calculated by //Auto design// (if required) or defined in //Manual design//.
1014 +\\[[image:1585579278621-697.png]]
1015 +Figure: Calculation perimeters, design parameters and applied reinforcement
1016 +
1017 +* **Detailed calculation formulas**
1018 +Calculation details and final values are collected by checking types: //Concrete compression resistance //(Eurocode2: Part 1.1: 6.4.3), //Shear reinforcement resistance// (Part 1.1: 6.4.3) and //Concrete shear resistance// (Part 1.1: 6.4.3). The proper results are displayed in green, while the red result warnings you to repeat design. The content of the utilization checks depends on **Display options**. Not relevant checks can also be hidden.
1019 +\\[[image:1585579313384-578.png]]
1020 +Figure: Utilization formulas and tables
1021 +* **Summary graph**
1022 +//Summary// graph is displayed with legend by default.
1023 +[[image:1585579334463-785.png]]
1024 +Figure: Utilization summary
1025 +
1026 +[[image:1585579349204-697.png]]// Tabmenu// contains the following tools and settings:
1027 +
1028 +* **Selection of zones checked for punching**
1029 +You can choose a unique zone or a design group zone member from the drop-down lists to display its detailed results mentioned before. Each row displays the ID and the maximum utilization of a member. In case of a design group, “Maximum” means the significant member having the maximum utilization.
1030 +* **Selection of design load**
1031 +Depending on punching design was done for load combinations or load groups, a load combination or the maximum or a significant component of load groups can be selected for detailed results. Each row displays the name of the load combination/load group component and its utilization effect. “Maximum” means the significant load combination or component of load groups.
1032 +\\[[image:1585579362430-213.png]]
1033 +Figure: Selection from checked elements and design loads
1034 +
1035 +* (((
1036 +[[image:1585579395662-213.png]] **Auto design**
1037 +Quick //Auto design// can be done for the currently displayed unique/grouped zone. Its design parameters can be set/modified in the appearing dialog, and then clicking //OK// starts punching design that updates all detailed result figures and tables.
1038 +)))
1039 +* (((
1040 +[[image:1585579417694-583.png]] **Display options**
1041 +The content and the appearance of the detailed result can be set with //Display options//.
1042 +\\[[image:1585579439372-176.png]]
1043 +\\Figure: Display options of Detailed result
1044 +)))
1045 +* (((
1046 +[[image:1585579425669-814.png]] **Go to**
1047 +Navigate in the //Detailed result// window by selecting the required design type in the drop-down list. It is useful when you are in zoomed view.
1048 +)))
1049 +
1050 +[[image:1585579464502-590.png]] Click //Tools > Add view to document// to place all figures and tables or specified details only into //Documentation//.
1051 +
1052 +
1053 +=== Concealed bar reinforcement ===
1054 +
1055 +Concealed bar allows for designing certain parts of a shell as a bar. For example, a wall region over a door opening can be considered as a concealed beam. The internal forces from shell results are converted to bar internal forces and the checking is done on the bar.
1056 +
800 800  To define a concealed bar select the [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image131.png]] option then  //Specify concealed bar// [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image132.png]] , then select the RC slab or wall and specify the diagonal corners of a rectangulare region (or select exsisting rectangular region).
801 801  
802 802  The bar’s local co-ordinate system by default is parallel with the corresponding region’s local system, but there is an option to define skew concealed bar.
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