<
From version < 153.1 >
edited by Fredrik Lagerström
on 2020/03/30 15:48
To version < 154.1 >
edited by Fredrik Lagerström
on 2020/03/30 15:49
>
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1 +RC Design
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1 +Manuals.User Manual.WebHome
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1 +{{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
2 +{{toc/}}
3 +{{/box}}
4 +
5 +Following the analysis calculation, the applied reinforcement (longitudinal bars, stirrups etc.) can be designed automatically and refined manually for concrete beams, columns, truss members, slabs, walls and shell elements. The applied reinforcement can be considered in cracked-section analysis.
6 +
7 +The table summarizes the available RC design features and its analysis-related effect (cracked-section analysis) by FEM-Design module.
8 +
9 +(% style="width:914px" %)
10 +|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:255px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Design element type**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:203px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Design feature**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:119px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**[[image:1585573773672-406.png]]**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:116px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**[[image:1585573778330-305.png]]**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:105px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**[[image:1585573782915-229.png]]**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:113px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**[[image:1585573787911-559.png]]**
11 +|(% colspan="1" rowspan="3" style="width:255px" %)[[image:1585573768201-924.png]] **Bar reinforcement**|(% style="width:203px" %)**Auto design**|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)[[image:1585573853108-966.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:105px" %)[[image:1585573874778-224.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:113px" %)[[image:1585573871212-244.png]]
12 +|(% style="width:203px" %)**Manual design**|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)[[image:1585573855352-957.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:105px" %)[[image:1585573869887-398.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:113px" %)[[image:1585573877455-535.png]]
13 +|(% style="width:203px" %)**Cracked-section analysis**|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)[[image:1585573863236-877.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:105px" %)[[image:1585573867197-586.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:113px" %)[[image:1585573868480-935.png]]
14 +|(% colspan="1" rowspan="3" style="width:255px" %)[[image:1585573831073-133.png]] **// //Surface reinforcement**|(% style="width:203px" %)**Auto design**|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)[[image:1585573879990-961.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %)[[image:1585573864946-861.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:105px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:113px" %)[[image:1585573890470-132.png]]
15 +|(% style="width:203px" %)**Manual design**|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)[[image:1585573878798-454.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %)[[image:1585573866173-113.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:105px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:113px" %)[[image:1585573888882-302.png]]
16 +|(% style="width:203px" %)**Cracked-section analysis**|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)[[image:1585573872383-918.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %)[[image:1585573876182-601.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:105px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:113px" %)[[image:1585573887836-729.png]]
17 +|(% colspan="1" rowspan="3" style="width:255px" %)[[image:1585573835604-175.png]] **// //Punching reinforcement**|(% style="width:203px" %)**Auto design**|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)[[image:1585573883841-134.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:105px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:113px" %)[[image:1585573886809-630.png]]
18 +|(% style="width:203px" %)**Manual design**|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)[[image:1585573882511-646.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:105px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:113px" %)[[image:1585573873636-923.png]]
19 +|(% style="width:203px" %)**Cracked-section analysis**|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)[[image:1585573881472-866.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:105px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:113px" %)[[image:1585573885212-816.png]]
20 +
21 +Table: RC design features by FEM-Design module
22 +
23 +Global** **//Auto (RC) design// (//Calculate > Design calculations > Auto design all structural elements//) gives applied reinforcement for all concrete elements based on their initial design calculation parameters, //Auto design > Parameters// and optimized to their internal forces and detailed utilization calculations. With //Manual design// you can fine-tune the reinforcement by elements and/or design groups. You can do quick //Auto design// by elements and design groups only instead of global design. Of course, any number of design cycles is executable, so the global //Auto design// can be combined with both previous and additional element-based //Auto designs//.
24 +
25 +
26 +
27 +(% style="width:826px" %)
28 +|(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**No.**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:239px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Global RC design**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:251px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Element-based RC design**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:251px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Combined RC design**
29 +|1|(% style="width:239px" %)[[image:1585573949525-261.png]] //Design calculation parameters//|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585574004114-884.png]] Global //Analysis//|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585573954730-179.png]] //Design calculation parameters//
30 +|2|(% style="width:239px" %)[[image:1585573993155-430.png]] **Design group**|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585573952090-625.png]] //Design calculation parameters//|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585573997020-936.png]] **Design group**
31 +|3|(% style="width:239px" %)[[image:1585573961573-424.png]] [[image:1585574043587-844.png]] //Auto design > Parameters//|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585573995063-242.png]] **Design group**|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585573969423-886.png]] [[image:1585574038186-531.png]] //Auto design > Parameters//
32 +|4|(% style="width:239px" %)[[image:1585574021361-824.png]] Global //Auto design//|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585573963549-317.png]] [[image:1585574041988-785.png]] //Auto design > Parameters//|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585574014808-672.png]] Global //Auto design//
33 +|5|(% style="width:239px" %)[[image:1585574027271-692.png]] //Manual design// by elements|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585573971635-353.png]] [[image:1585573982722-210.png]] //Auto design// by elements|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585573967310-807.png]] [[image:1585574039894-501.png]] //Auto design > Parameters//
34 +|6|(% style="width:239px" %)[[image:1585574049901-913.png]] //Apply design changes//|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585574029205-629.png]] //Manual design// by elements|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585573965386-714.png]] [[image:1585573984688-491.png]] //Auto design// by elements
35 +|7|(% style="width:239px" %)[[image:1585574007870-973.png]] Global //Check//|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585574051562-444.png]] //Apply design changes//|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585574031203-532.png]] //Manual design// by elements
36 +|8|(% style="width:239px" %)[[image:1585574006165-612.png]] Cracked-section analysis|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585574011057-275.png]] Global //Check//|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585574053024-330.png]] //Apply design changes//
37 +|9|(% style="width:239px" %)[[image:1585574058339-646.png]] //Documentation//|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585574009620-444.png]] Cracked-section analysis|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585574016452-368.png]] Global //Check//
38 +|10|(% style="width:239px" %) |(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585574060429-927.png]] //Documentation//|(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585574013079-456.png]] Cracked-section analysis
39 +|11|(% style="width:239px" %) |(% style="width:251px" %) |(% style="width:251px" %)[[image:1585574061999-364.png]] //Documentation//
40 +
41 +Table: Recommended steps by design alternatives
42 +
43 += Bar Reinforcement =
44 +
45 +Bar reinforcement design needs internal forces from **Analysis** calculations applied for //Load combinations// or //Load-groups//, [[image:1585574093992-877.png]] **Buckling length** and initial design settings defined by [[image:1585574099922-322.png]] //Design calculation parameters// and 2^^nd^^ order calculation method by [[image:1585574105384-726.png]]// Configuration.//
46 +
47 +
48 +[[image:1585574111041-426.png]]
49 +
50 +Figure: Design calculation parameters
51 +
52 +
53 +[[image:1585574118993-935.png]]
54 +
55 +Figure: Design calculation parameters
56 +
57 +The maximal section distance defines the approximate position of the design sections and so the available sections for detailed results.
58 +
59 +The method for considering imperfections of bars has to be selected, there are three types:
60 +
61 +* Ignore 2^^nd^^ order analysis: The internal forces comes from the 1^^st^^ order results.
62 +* Consider 2^^nd^^ order analysis, if available: The internal forces comes from the 2^^nd^^ order results.
63 +* 2^^nd^^ order internal forces + 1^^st^^ order design: The internal forces comes from the 2^^nd^^ order results, but the design calculation will be linear.
64 +
65 +== Auto Design ==
66 +
67 +|[[image:1585574140289-593.png]]|Global// Auto design// gives utilization results and suitable reinforcement distribution for all concrete bars of the current project.
68 +
69 +|(% style="width:100px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1390px" %)(((
70 +The applied design parameters can be displayed on screen by showing the “//RC bar, design parameters//” object layer, or click [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image016.png||alt="icon_design"]] //Design// tool of the [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image013.png||alt="icon_autodesign2"]] //Auto design// to show the parameters together with a detailed utilization table. Utilization as colored figure (color palette) can be displayed by selecting //New result > RC bar > Utilization//, and clicking the //Numeric value //tool summarizes the list of maximum utilizations by elements in a dialog.
71 +)))
72 +
73 +[[image:1585574194489-978.png]]
74 +
75 +Figure: Global Auto design and utilization results
76 +
77 +|(% style="width:85px" %)[[image:1585574210158-767.png]]|(% style="width:1405px" %)Element-based //Auto design// finds the most suitable position and distribution of longitudinal bars and stirrups for selected unique or grouped members only according to their user-defined design parameters. Initial reinforcement (steel quality, diameter, profile, concrete cover) and design (aggregate, vibration) settings can be set for the concrete members/groups with the [[image:1585574241422-868.png]] //Parameters// tool of //Auto design//.
78 +
79 +
80 +[[image:1585574252957-683.png]]
81 +
82 +Figure: Design parameters
83 +
84 +To run element-based design for the load combinations or the maximum of load groups, select the required members and/or group with the //Auto design// command and click [[image:1585574266984-555.png]] //Design// tool. The quick process results applied reinforcement and their checked utilization. Check the //Display table// box to have a look at the overall design results.
85 +
86 +[[image:1585574273830-742.png]]
87 +
88 +Figure: Quick summary of Auto design results
89 +
90 +The upper table shows the design efficiency and the maximal utilization of the designed single members and groups based on the given design parameters. The bottom table (“//Show details//”) displays the utilization details of the bar or the members of the group selected in the upper table.
91 +
92 +(% style="width:979px" %)
93 +|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:154px" %) |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:453px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Meaning**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:369px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Note**
94 +|(% style="width:154px" %)[[image:1585574282628-966.png]]|(% style="width:453px" %)Suitable reinforcement is available|(% style="width:369px" %)
95 +|(% style="width:154px" %)[[image:1585574288796-260.png]]|(% style="width:453px" %)Suitable reinforcement is not available|(% style="width:369px" %)Modify bar profile, material or RC design parameters
96 +|(% style="width:154px" %)Group|(% style="width:453px" %)ID of a single bar or a group name|(% style="width:369px" %)
97 +|(% style="width:154px" %)Design parameters|(% style="width:453px" %)Applied design parameters|(% style="width:369px" %)
98 +|(% style="width:154px" %)Total weight|(% style="width:453px" %)Total weight of applied reinforcement|(% style="width:369px" %)
99 +|(% style="width:154px" %)Max|(% style="width:453px" %)Max. utilization of a single bar or the significant member of a group|(% style="width:369px" %)
100 +|(% style="width:154px" %)Min|(% style="width:453px" %)Max. utilization of the less significant group member|(% style="width:369px" %)
101 +|(% style="width:154px" %)Bar|(% style="width:453px" %)ID of a single bar or a group member|(% style="width:369px" %)
102 +|(% style="width:154px" %)SEC|(% style="width:453px" %)Section utilization|(% style="width:369px" %)According to Eurocode 2: 6.1
103 +|(% style="width:154px" %)ST|(% style="width:453px" %)Stirrup utilization|(% style="width:369px" %)According to Eurocode 2: 6.2 and 6.3
104 +|(% style="width:154px" %)C|(% style="width:453px" %)Concrete utilization|(% style="width:369px" %)According to Eurocode 2: 6.2 and 6.3
105 +|(% style="width:154px" %)T|(% style="width:453px" %)Utilization of torsional reinforcement|(% style="width:369px" %)According to Eurocode 2: 6.3
106 +|(% style="width:154px" %)CW|(% style="width:453px" %)Utilization for crack width|(% style="width:369px" %)According to Eurocode 2: 7.3
107 +
108 +Table: The meaning of symbols, design parameters and utilization results
109 +
110 +Quick redesign can be done inside the //Utilization// table:
111 +
112 +1. Select a bar or a design group in the upper table.
113 +1. Modify the design parameters of the select element under //Parameters//.
114 +1. Click //Design//.
115 +
116 +Applied reinforcement generated by //Auto design// can be displayed with:
117 +
118 +* **Detailed result** applied for the displayed utilization result (//New result > RC bar > Utilization//) of a single bar or a group member.
119 +* //Manual design //applied for a single bar or a group member to edit the design reinforcement and/or add further longitudinal bars and stirrups.
120 +
121 +== Manual Design ==
122 +
123 +|(% style="width:57px" %)[[image:1585574376098-805.png]]|(% style="width:1433px" %)(((
124 +//Manual design// opens a new window in the current project and gives tools to define new (applied) reinforcement in concrete beams, columns and bars, or to modify/edit the reinforcement generated by //Auto design//. The drawing area is divided into two view windows:
125 +
126 +* **Cross-section**
127 +It shows the cross-section of the current concrete bar. The definition of new longitudinal bars (sectional position) and stirrups (shape) starts in this window. The position of the cross-section (section view) can be set by moving the section marker in //3D view: //
128 + [[image:1585574451276-123.png]]
129 +* **3D view**
130 +It shows the side view of the concrete bar by default. But, any 2D and 3D view can be set with the //View// menu commands (e.g. general 3D view with //View > Space view//). The start and end pont (and so the length) of longitudinal bars and the position (the distribution) of the stirrups can be defined here.
131 +* **Interaction surface view / Result window**
132 +In this window 2 types of results can be displayed, Interaction surface view or Summary results. The Ineraction surface shows the section utilization in a graphical way in N-My-Mz coordinate system. By default it is displayed in 3D view, but Horizontal and Vertical cuts can be done.
133 +The Summary results can be seen also after the bar is Checked.
134 +)))
135 +
136 +[[image:1585574492335-373.png]]
137 +
138 +[[image:1585574497411-900.png]]
139 +
140 +Figure: Working windows of Manual design
141 +
142 +You can choose the required window by clicking inside it or its title.
143 +
144 +|[[image:1585574519415-230.png]]|(((
145 +The //Longitudinal bar //tool defines new bars in given insertion points. Set the main properties of the new bar on the tool palette or all properties under //Default settings//.
146 +
147 +
148 +)))
149 +
150 +(% style="text-align:center" %)
151 +[[image:1585574537495-575.png]]
152 +
153 +(% style="text-align: center;" %)
154 +Figure: Definition tools and settings of Longitudinal bar
155 +
156 +
157 +Use one of the following tools to place the new bar in the //Cross-section// view:
158 +
159 +* Clicking in //Cross-section//, the new bar will be placed with its center point.
160 +\\Align the new bar to a line/edge by select one in //Cross-section//. Move the mouse to set the bar’s relative position to the selected line/edge: the center point/upper/bottom/left/right surface will be on the line/edge.
161 +\\[[image:1585574594615-151.png]]
162 +Figure: Placement of a bar aligned to an inner edge of a stirrup
163 +\\Align the new bar to a corner defined by two lines/edges. The bar will be tangent for the first and then the second given line.
164 +\\[[image:1585574634232-127.png]]
165 +Figure: Placement of a bar aligned to a corner of a stirrup
166 +*1. Define the group of longitudinal bars by set the number of the horizontal (nc), vertical (nr) bar numbers and the distance between the rows (c)
167 +\\[[image:1585574682296-722.png]]
168 +Figure: Placement of bar group
169 +* The steel bar length can be defined manually by giving the bar’s start and end point in //3D view//.
170 +
171 +(% style="text-align:center" %)
172 +[[image:1585574715281-941.png]]
173 +
174 +(% style="text-align: center;" %)
175 +Figure: Steel bar length definition
176 +
177 +
178 +|(% style="width:72px" %)(((
179 +[[image:1585574735562-803.png]]
180 +)))|(% style="width:1418px" %)(((
181 +The //Stirrup //tool defines new stirrups with given shapes. Set the main properties of the new stirrup bars on the tool palette or all properties under //Default settings//.
182 +
183 +[[image:1585574751507-414.png]]
184 +
185 +Figure: Definition tools and settings of Stirrup
186 +
187 +Choose the contour geometry of the new bar and define the bar’s relative position to the contour with //Alignment//, which also defines the final stirrup shape with the //Cover// value in the //Cross-section// view. In the final step, the distribution of the stirrups based on the //Distance //value is defined with a start and an end point in the //3D view//.
188 +
189 +[[image:1585574792425-508.png]]
190 +
191 +Figure: Stirrup geometries
192 +
193 +[[image:1585574806132-660.png]]
194 +
195 +Figure: Placement of stirrups
196 +)))
197 +
198 +|(% style="width:106px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1384px" %)The contour defines the stirrup shape, if the //Cover// value is set to 0.
199 +
200 +
201 +|[[image:1585574885365-773.png]]|You can modify the properties (quality, diameter, profile etc.) of previously defined bar/stirrup reinforcement(s) with the //Properties// tool of //Longitudinal bar// and //Stirrup//.
202 +|[[image:1585574877068-421.png]]|(((
203 +To exit from //Manual design// with validating the new and modified reinforcement bars and stirrups, click //OK//.
204 +)))
205 +|[[image:1585574893040-889.png]]|To exit from //Manual design// without accepting the defined and modified reinforcement, click //Cancel//.
206 +
207 +
208 +==== __Result window tools__ ====
209 +
210 +
211 +
212 +
213 +In Result window tools one can chose the result type to display (interaction surface of the designed bar, or a summary of utilizations for different design checks) and customize displayed results.
214 +
215 +When //Result// window is activated, //Result window tools// pops up. It contains options to control the content of //Result window.//
216 +
217 +[[image:1585574960130-362.png]]
218 +
219 +== Detailed Result ==
220 +
221 +Utilization of RC bars can be displayed in the following cases:
222 +
223 +* After global //Auto design//, you can display utilization of all concrete bars calculated from the suggested applied reinforcement.
224 +* When running element-based //Auto design//, utilization can be displayed by designed elements.
225 +* After //Manual design//, element-based //Check// displays utilization for selected elements.
226 +* After global //Check// done for all bar elements having final applied reinforcement.
227 +
228 +(% style="width:1174px" %)
229 +|(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**No.**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:256px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Global Auto design**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:209px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Element-based Auto des.**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:191px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Element-based Check**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:470px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Global Check**
230 +|1|(% style="width:256px" %)[[image:1585575005981-456.png]] //Calculate > Design calculation > Auto design all structural elements//|(% style="width:209px" %)[[image:1585575049743-145.png]] //Auto design//|(% style="width:191px" %)(((
231 +[[image:1585575051197-655.png]] //Auto design// and/or
232 +
233 +[[image:1585575059246-927.png]] //Manual design//
234 +)))|(% style="width:470px" %)(((
235 +[[image:1585575052733-563.png]] //Auto design// and/or
236 +
237 +[[image:1585575060959-401.png]] //Manual design//
238 +)))
239 +|2|(% style="width:256px" %)[[image:1585575031937-940.png]] //New result>RC bar//|(% style="width:209px" %)[[image:1585575033517-591.png]] //New result>RC bar//|(% style="width:191px" %)[[image:1585575043780-535.png]] //Check//|(% style="width:470px" %)[[image:1585575066490-892.png]] Apply changes
240 +|3|(% style="width:256px" %) |(% style="width:209px" %) |(% style="width:191px" %)[[image:1585575035131-212.png]] //New result>RC bar//|(% style="width:470px" %)[[image:1585575009710-257.png]] //Calculate > Design calculation > Auto design all structural elements//
241 +|4|(% style="width:256px" %) |(% style="width:209px" %) |(% style="width:191px" %) |(% style="width:470px" %)[[image:1585575036716-815.png]] //New result>RC bar//
242 +
243 +Table: Steps of displaying RC bar utilization by different design cases
244 +
245 +|(((
246 +[[image:1585575107870-878.png]]
247 +)))|Utilization displayed with //New result// appears for all designed bars. The utilization components for a bar/design group can be displayed with //Detailed result//.
248 +
249 +//Detailed result// opens a new windows in the current project after selecting a bar/group member, which display:
250 +
251 +* **Applied reinforcement**
252 +The figure gives the distribution of the applied reinforcement.
253 +[[image:1585575156969-401.png]]
254 +[[image:1585575173680-383.png]]
255 +[[image:1585575182146-966.png]]
256 +* The figure gives the cross-section datas: height, width, area, moment of inertias.
257 +\\[[image:1585575222649-783.png]]**Cross-section data**
258 +
259 +**Figure: Cross-section datas**
260 +
261 +
262 +* **Material properties**
263 +
264 +In Materials section, the program shows the material properties of the applied concrete’s and reinforcement, e.g. compression strength (f,,ck,,), the mean tensile strength (f,,ctm,,), mean Young modulus (E,,cm,,).
265 +
266 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image053.png]]
267 +
268 +Figure: Material properties
269 +
270 +
271 +* **Calculation formulas**
272 +
273 +This contains the EC-3 formulas for checking RC bar elements, the substitutions in the formulas and the calculation table for each cross section. In the table, the amount of cross-section calculations can be set in the Display options.
274 +
275 +
276 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image054.png]]
277 +
278 +Figure: Formulae
279 +
280 +* **Detailed calculation tables**
281 +
282 +Calculation details and final values are collected in tables sorted by checking types and under utilization graphs by default. Column number depends on the number of calculation sections or the table settings defined with **//Display options//**.
283 +
284 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image055.png]]
285 +
286 +Figure: Detailed calculation table
287 +
288 +* **Stress-strain graphs**
289 +
290 +Different colors display the strain (red) and the concrete stress (cyan) curves grouped by //Section utilization// (ultimate limit states) and //Crack width//( serviceability limit states). Also the compressed concrete zones are shown with cyan fills in the calculation sections. The number of displayed sections can be set with **Display options**.
291 +
292 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image056.png||alt="figure_59_detailed_stress"]]
293 +
294 +Figure: Stress-strain graphs by sections
295 +
296 +* **Utilization graphs**
297 +
298 +//Section// (Eurocode2: 6.1), //Stirrup// (6.2, 6.3), //Concrete// (6.2, 6.3), //Torsional reinforcement// (6.3) and //Crack width// (7.3) utilization graphs together with a //Summary// graph are displayed with legends by default. Numeric values can be inquired in the calculation sections (**//Design calculation parameters//** sets the maximum distance of sections).
299 +
300 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image057.png]]
301 +
302 +Figure: Utilization graph
303 +
304 +//[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image058.png||alt="icon_Detailedresult_tab"]] Tabmenu// contains the following tools and settings:
305 +
306 +* **Selection of element to display**
307 +
308 +You can choose a unique or a design group member from the drop-down lists to display its detailed results mentioned before. Each row displays the ID and the maximum utilization of a member. In case of a design group, “Maximum” means the significant member having the maximum utilization.
309 +
310 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image059.png||alt="figure_60_detailed_members"]]
311 +
312 +Figure: Selection of a unique or a group member
313 +
314 +* **Selection of design load**
315 +
316 +Depending on RC design was done for load combinations or load groups, a load combination or the maximum or a significant component of load groups can be selected for detailed results. Each row displays the name of the load combination/load group component and its utilization effect. “Maximum” means the significant load combination or component of load groups.
317 +
318 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image060.png||alt="figure_61_detailed_loads"]]
319 +
320 +Figure: Selection from design loads
321 +
322 +* (((
323 +|(((
324 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image061.png||alt="icon_autodesign"]]
325 +)))
326 +
327 +**Auto design**
328 +)))
329 +
330 +Quick //Auto design// can be done for the currently displayed unique/group member. Its design parameters can be set/modified in the appearing dialog, and then clicking //OK// starts RC design that updates all detailed result figures and tables.
331 +
332 +
333 +
334 +* (((
335 +|(((
336 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image015.png||alt="icon_manualdesign2"]]
337 +)))
338 +
339 +**Manual design**
340 +)))
341 +
342 +[[(% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Manual design**>>path:#_Manual_Design_1]](%%) can be launched directly for the currently displayed unique/group member. Returning from reinforcement editing updates all detailed result figures and tables.
343 +
344 +* (((
345 +|(((
346 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image062.png||alt="icon_displopt"]]
347 +)))
348 +
349 +**Display options**
350 +)))
351 +
352 +The content and the appearance of the detailed result can be set with //Display options//. For tables or stress-strain graphs, you can choose all, maximum and characteristic calculation sections to display.
353 +
354 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image063.png]]
355 +Figure: Display options of Detailed result
356 +
357 +* (((
358 +|(((
359 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image064.png||alt="icon_goto"]]
360 +)))
361 +
362 +**Go to**
363 +)))
364 +
365 +Navigate in the //RC bar detailed result window //by selecting the required design type in the drop-down list. It is useful when you are in zoomed view.
366 +
367 +
368 +|(((
369 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image065.png]]
370 +)))
371 +
372 +Click //Tools > Add view to document// to place all figures and tables or specified details only into //Documentation//.
373 +
374 +
375 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image023.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **Export RC bar reinforcement into *.dwg or *.dxf file format by clicking File/Export to/Export to AutoCAD…
376 +
377 +
378 += Surface Reinforcement =
379 +
380 +Surface reinforcement design needs internal forces from //Analysis// calculations applied for //Load combinations// or //Load-groups// and initial reinforcement properties (direction, shape, steel quality, diameter and concrete cover) defined by [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image010.png||alt="icon_calcparam"]] //Design calculation parameters//.
381 +
382 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image066.jpg]]
383 +
384 +Figure: Initial reinforcement settings
385 +
386 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image067.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **The reinforcement shape (//Straight/Centric//) and the bar directions (//x’/y’/r/t//) set by //Design calculation parameters// will be fixed parameters in //Auto// and //Manual design//, so only they can be edited/modified only with //Design calculation parameters//.
387 +
388 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image067.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **Although all design results can be calculated for all reinforcement types, //Auto design// does not work for the //Centric// reinforcement! Only //Manual design// can be used to define and edit the required centric reinforcement area.
389 +
390 +A Plate or Wall can be specified as single layer reinforced by defining “Single layer reinforcement” Calculation parameter for it.
391 +
392 +**//[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image068.jpg]]//**
393 +
394 +Figure: Single layer reinforcement definition
395 +
396 +In the Calculation parameters dialog the User can define the followings:
397 +
398 +* the quality and diameter of the reinforcement for both directions,
399 +* the direction of the bottom layer,
400 +* the distance of the reinforcement from the centreline,
401 +* the allowed crack width on the bottom and on the top of the structure.
402 +
403 +**//[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image069.jpg]]//**
404 +
405 +Figure: Calculation parameters for single layer reinfrocement
406 +
407 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image023.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image071.png]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image072.png]]
408 +Crack width values that exceed the specified limit are displayed with a different colour. The maximum allowed value of crack width can be set at the //Calculation parameters// ([[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image073.png]] ). At the //Display options //([[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image070.png]] ), the weight, scale and colour of the crack lines can be defined.
409 +
410 +
411 +If a shell has “Single layer reinforcement” Calculation parameter, its Design parameter can be modified only if “Single layer reinforcement” option is selected in Auto design/Parameters.
412 +
413 +**//[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image074.png]]//**
414 +
415 +Figure: Auto design parameters of single layer reinforcement
416 +
417 +In case of Manual design, single layer reinforcement can be placed only on „Mid, x’/r” and „Mid, y’/t” layers.
418 +
419 +**//[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image075.jpg]]//**
420 +
421 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image067.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **Single and double layer reinforcements cannot be used in the same Plate or Wall element.
422 +
423 +== Auto Design ==
424 +
425 +
426 +|(((
427 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image011.png||alt="icon_calculate"]]
428 +)))
429 +
430 +Global// Auto design// gives design force and required reinforcement results and suitable applied reinforcement for all concrete surfaces of the current project. Furthermore, //Auto design// calculates missing reinforcement and crack width based on the determined applied reinforcement.
431 +
432 +
433 +
434 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image076.png||alt="figure_67_surfacerc_man_new"]]
435 +
436 +Figure: Global Auto design and its result
437 +
438 +
439 +|(((
440 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image013.png||alt="icon_autodesign2"]]
441 +)))
442 +
443 +Element-based //Auto design// finds the most suitable top and bottom (or mid) reinforcement for selected concrete plate, wall and shell elements or element groups only according to their internal forces and design parameters. Initial settings of the base net and additional reinforcement by positions (//Bottom face/Top face/Mid face//) and directions (//x’/y’/r/t//) can be set with the [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image014.png||alt="icon_properties"]] //Parameters// tool of //Auto design//.
444 +
445 +
446 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image077.jpg]]
447 +
448 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image078.png]]
449 +
450 +Figure: Design parameters
451 +
452 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image067.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **The minimum concrete cover together with bar directions is derived from //Design calculation parameters// settings.
453 +
454 +To run element-based design for the load combinations or the maximum of load groups, select the required members and/or group with the //Auto design// command and click [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image016.png||alt="icon_design"]] //Design// tool. The quick process finds the suitable bar diameter for the additional reinforcement from the defined diameter range, calculates the bars’ utilization and distributes top and bottom reinforcement where required.
455 +
456 +
457 +|(((
458 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image079.emz]]
459 +)))
460 +
461 +The placed bars can be displayed by their directions and positions with the navigator icons of the //Reinforcement layer// tool palette.
462 +
463 +
464 +
465 +|(((
466 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image080.png]]
467 +)))
468 +
469 +The generated applied reinforcement is also visible in Manual design, where additional reinforcement can be defined or the current state can be edited.
470 +
471 +
472 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image067.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **In case of design groups, the applied reinforcement appears only at the Master group member.
473 +
474 +Check the tool palette’s //Display table// box to have a look at the overall utilization results given for the designed surface elements or design groups.
475 +
476 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image081.jpg]]
477 +
478 +Figure: Quick summary of Auto design results
479 +
480 +The upper table shows the design efficiency and the maximal utilization of the designed single elements and groups based on the given design parameters. The bottom table displays the utilization details of the surface element or the elements of the group selected in the upper table.
481 +
482 +| |**Meaning**
483 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_designOK"]]|Suitable reinforcement is available
484 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image028.png||alt="icon_designNO"]]|(((
485 +Suitable reinforcement is not available
486 +
487 +Note: Modify the element thickness, material or RC design parameters.
488 +)))
489 +|Group|ID of a single element or a group name
490 +|Design parameters|Main applied design parameters
491 +|Total weight|Total weight of applied reinforcement
492 +|Max|Max. utilization of a single element or the significant member of a group
493 +|Min|Max. utilization of the less significant group member
494 +|Shell|ID of a single element or a group member
495 +|RBX|Utilization of bottom x’/r reinforcement
496 +|RBY|Utilization of bottom y’/t reinforcement
497 +|RTX|Utilization of top x’/r reinforcement
498 +|RTY|Utilization of top y’/t reinforcement
499 +|CWB|Utilization for crack width on the bottom face
500 +|CWT|Utilization for crack width on the top face
501 +
502 +Table: The meaning of symbols, design parameters and utilization results
503 +
504 +Quick redesign can be done inside the //Utilization// table:
505 +
506 +**1**                    Select a surface element or a design group in the upper table.
507 +
508 +**2**                    Modify the design parameters of the current elements under //Parameters//.
509 +
510 +**3**    If the selected surface elements already contain applied reinforcement defined by //Manual design// or earlier //Auto design//, you can delete it by activating [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image082.png]] on the //Auto design// tool palette.
511 +
512 +**4**                    Click //Design//.
513 +
514 +==== Manual Design ====
515 +
516 +
517 +
518 +|(((
519 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image015.png||alt="icon_manualdesign2"]]
520 +)))
521 +
522 +//Manual design// gives tools to define new (applied) reinforcement in concrete plates, walls and shells, or to modify/redefine the reinforcement generated by //Auto design//.
523 +
524 +
525 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image083.png]]
526 +
527 +Figure: Manual design tools
528 +
529 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image023.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **If needed, applied reinforcement defined earlier by //Auto design// or earlier //Manual design// can be deleted with //Edit > Erase//. The geometry of the applied reinforcement regions can be edited with the region-related //Edit// commands such as //Region operations//.
530 +
531 +
532 +|(((
533 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image084.png||alt="icon_barshapes"]]
534 +)))
535 +
536 +To define new reinforcement in a surface element, first choose the same reinforcement shape (//Straight/Centric//) set earlier for the surface element with Design calculation parameters.
537 +
538 +
539 +
540 +|(((
541 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image085.png]]
542 +)))
543 +
544 +Choose the geometry of the new surface reinforcement.
545 +
546 +
547 +Choose the reinforcement layer with [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image086.png]]
548 +
549 +
550 +
551 +|(((
552 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image087.jpg]]
553 +)))
554 +
555 +Set the position (//Bottom face/Top face/Mid face//) of the new surface reinforcement.
556 +
557 +
558 +
559 +|(((
560 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image080.png]]
561 +)))
562 +
563 +Set the direction (//x’/r/y’/t//) of the new surface reinforcement.
564 +
565 +
566 +All parameter of the new reinforcement bars can be set under //Default settings// or the main parameters on the //Manual design// tool palette.
567 +
568 +According to the geometry place the surface reinforcement with its required points. The new surface reinforcement will be situated parallel with the plane of the host element with the defined concrete cover thickness.
569 +
570 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image088.jpg]]
571 +
572 +Figure: Additional reinforcement defined with Manual design
573 +
574 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image067.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] ** **In case of design groups, the applied reinforcement of the group Master is editable only.
575 +
576 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image023.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **The active layer will automatically follow the result displayed: e.g., when showing stresses ont he top surface of a slab, the top layer of reinforcement will be activated.
577 +
578 +
579 +|(((
580 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image089.png||alt="tool_propertiy"]]
581 +)))
582 +
583 +You can modify the properties (quality, diameter, spacing, cover) of previously defined surface reinforcement(s) with the //Properties// tool of //Manual design//.
584 +
585 +
586 +
587 +|(((
588 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image090.png||alt="icon_allcheck"]]
589 +)))
590 +
591 +Running global// //(//Calculate > Design calculations > Check//) or element-based //Check// the program gives //Applied reinforcement// result, so the applied area of surface elements can be displayed with //Color palette//, //Contour lines//, //Graph// or //Sections mode//.
592 +
593 +
594 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image091.png||alt="figure_69_appliedrc_new"]]
595 +
596 +Figure: Applied reinforcement area displayed with Graph, Color palette, Contour lines, Sections and Bi-direction mode
597 +
598 +==== Shear capacity ====
599 +
600 +FD calculates RC shells (//3D Plate, Wall//) shear capacity and their results can be seen from //New result / RC Design / Shear capacity.// These results can be displayed in //Graph, Contour Line, Color palette //and //Section //format.
601 +
602 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image092.png]]
603 +
604 +//No shear regions//
605 +
606 +This is a specific region which allows to neglect shear in it. When entering RC tab, automatic //No shear// regions are generated for RC plates,
607 +
608 +* at column intersection points
609 +* along wall intersection lines
610 +* at point and line supports.
611 +
612 +Width of these regions depends on plate thickness and a factor that can be modified. One can also edit or inactivate these regions, but they cannot be completely deleted. User can also define//No shear region//s manually by launching //No shear region// command.
613 +
614 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image093.png||alt="1547468830787-390.png"]]
615 +
616 +Properties can only be applied for automatically generated //No shear// regions. Their x factor can be modified and they can be set to Inactive. With //Reset// option, automatically generated //No shear //regions can be set to default shape.
617 +
618 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image094.png||alt="1543943130186-200.png"]]
619 +
620 +
621 +==== Shell buckling ====
622 +
623 +The buckling problem of the shell is transformed to the buckling of equivalent columns made from the shell, on which the second order resistance and utilization is calculated.
624 +
625 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image067.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]]|Only RC Plane plates and Plane walls with straight reinforcement and uniform thickness are suitable for shell buckling calculation.
626 +
627 +The calculation process is based on so-called buckling regions, which can be defined at //RC design/Surface reinforcement/Buckling length.//
628 +
629 +
630 +Each buckling region on the shell has a corresponding buckling factor (beta) and a direction vector in the plane of the shell. The former will be used to calculate the buckling length of the equivalent column, while the latter one specifies the x’ longitudinal axis of this column. By default, FEM-Design generates one buckling region on each RC wall and plate. Default buckling direction is vertical on walls, and parallel with the local x axis on plates**.  Buckling factor is set to 0.0 on all shells in order to let the User decide whether this calculation is needed or not, since it is quite time consuming**.
631 +
632 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image023.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]]|Shells with zero buckling factor will not be considered for shell buckling calculation, but zero utilization is set for them.
633 +
634 +The default buckling regions can be modified by adding new regions to the shell. One shell may have more buckling regions with different beta factor and direction vector, but the shell must be completely covered by these regions.
635 +
636 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image096.png]]
637 +
638 +During the checking process, the program generates equivalent bar(s) from the shell based on its material, thickness and reinforcement. This bar is checked as an RC bar: Its utilization is calculated by determining its second order internal forces and resistance.
639 +
640 +The calculation process consists of the following steps:
641 +
642 +1. [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image097.png]]
643 +As other shell design calculations, the shell buckling is also calculated in every node of the shell (only where there is a buckling region with non-zero beta value).
644 +
645 +1. An equivalent bar is generated for the examined node as follows. The edges of the shell are intersected by the ray determined by the node and the direction vector of the corresponding buckling region. The two intersection points are taken as the start and the end point of the equivalent bars.
646 +
647 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image067.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]]|Note that this intersection is always made with the edges of the shell and not with the edges of the buckling region corresponding to the node! If a node is on the border of two or more buckling regions, it is calculated with both different beta values and direction vectors, and the higher utilization will be used.
648 +
649 +|(((
650 +β=2
651 +)))
652 +
653 +|(((
654 +β=2
655 +)))
656 +
657 +|(((
658 +β=1
659 +)))
660 +
661 +
662 +
663 +
664 +
665 +
666 +1. The cross section of the equivalent bar is 1 m wide and its height equals to the thickness of the shell. Along the bar, the applied reinforcement of the shell is transformed into the direction of the bar and placed into it.
667 +
668 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image099.png]]
669 +
670 +The checking process is executed section by section along the bar. The distance between these sections is given by //Division length of substitute column// parameter in Calculation parameter dialog (see the lower figure). Internal forces acting at these sections are calculated by transforming shell internal forces at the section point into the coordinate system of the column. As the buckling direction of shells is perpendicular to its plane, we need the equivalent bar’s normal force and moment vector in the plane of the shell for the calculation.
671 +
672 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image100.png]] [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image101.png]]
673 +
674 +|(((
675 +0.5 m
676 +)))
677 +
678 +|(((
679 +0.5 m
680 +)))
681 +
682 +|(((
683 +0.5 m
684 +)))
685 +
686 +|(((
687 +0.5 m
688 +)))
689 +
690 +|(((
691 +0.5 m
692 +)))
693 +
694 +|(((
695 +0.5 m
696 +)))
697 +
698 +|(((
699 +1.0 m
700 +)))
701 +
702 +
703 +1. Once the first order internal forces are obtained in every section, the second order internal forces are calculated based on the //nominal stiffness// or //nominal curvature// method, according to the configuration settings. The only difference in the checking process of a real bar and this equivalent bar is that now the eccentricity coming from the second order effects are applied only perpendicularly to the plane of the shell. In other words, the out-of-plane normal force has eccentricity only along the z’ axis of the shell. This modification is in harmony with the fact that the buckling direction of the shell is perpendicular to the plane.
704 +
705 +|(((
706 +NEd
707 +)))
708 +
709 +|(((
710 +MEd,I
711 +)))
712 +
713 +|(((
714 +NEd
715 +)))
716 +
717 +|(((
718 +MEd,II
719 +)))
720 +
721 +
722 +
723 +
724 +
725 +
726 +
727 +1. Finally, based on the second order internal forces, the utilization is calculated for every cross section of the equivalent bar (based on the interaction curve), and the highest section utilization is assigned to the node.
728 +
729 +Shell buckling calculations are available for //Load combinations//, //Maximum of load combinations// and //Maximum of load groups//. The utilization results can be displayed in the //New result/RC shell/Shell buckling/Utilization//
730 +
731 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image104.png]]
732 +
733 +Some details of the calculation can be obtained by listing //RC design/Load combinations/Shell, buckling //table. Also, wall buckling utilization appears in the //Shell, Utilization// list.
734 +
735 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image106.png]]
736 +
737 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image107.png]]
738 +
739 +Every plate and wall has one result, containing the coordinates of the dominant section, the corresponding reinforcement, first and second order internal forces together with the capacity and buckling factor.
740 +
741 +
742 +=== Punching Reinforcement ===
743 +
744 +Punching check and design can be done according to Eurocode 2 both in FEM-Design [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image108.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]] //Plate// and **[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image109.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] **//3D Structure// modules. It is recommended to perform after **Surface reinforcement design**, because surface reinforcement influences punching calculations.
745 +
746 +The punching regions are automatically defined by the program at the plate – coumn intersections and you can define them manually.
747 +
748 +* Punching design/check can be done at any point where a punching region is exists. Design and check can be done by these punching zones or by their **design groups**.
749 +
750 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image067.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **The program does not generate punching objects for columns that are connected to more than one slab at the same level.
751 +
752 +Initial properties are needed to be set for punching zones. Use [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image010.png||alt="icon_calcparam"]] //Calculation parameters// to define the followings:
753 +
754 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image110.png||alt="figure_punching zone_new2"]]
755 +
756 +
757 +Figure:Setting β values for punching objects
758 +
759 +* **Beta (β)**
760 +
761 +According to Eurocode 2, //β// coefficient is taken into account as the effect of any eccentricity of loading. Its value depends on column position. The program offers default standard values for column positions: for corner (β=1.5), for edge (β=1.4) and inside columns (β=1.15). These standard values have to de added manually by selected punching zones or by their groups. If you neglect //β// values, choosing //Calculate automatically// defines them during design/check process and gives accurate results for //β// coefficients (see **Detailed results**).
762 +
763 +* (((
764 +|(((
765 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image111.png||alt="figure_X20punching perimeters"]]
766 +)))
767 +
768 +**Distance of calculated perimeters (d)**
769 +)))
770 +
771 +This value is used in slightly different ways in checking and design process:
772 +
773 +Checking:      perimeters to check between u,,1,, and u,,out(,ef) ,,are generated with d distance from each other.
774 +
775 +
776 +Design:           searching for u,,out(,ef) ,,perimeter starts from u,,1,, and distance of checked perimeters from the column is increased by the d distance until u,,out(,ef) ,,is found.
777 +
778 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image023.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **Calculation parameters are displayed on the model view by the //Punching, calculation parameters// object layer.
779 +
780 +==== Auto Design ====
781 +
782 +
783 +|(((
784 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image011.png||alt="icon_calculate"]]
785 +)))
786 +
787 +Global// Auto design// gives utilization results for punching. Auto design applies the **initial punching reinforcement settings**.
788 +
789 +
790 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image067.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **Punching design always deletes the existing reinforcement and generates new one.
791 +
792 +**Defining punching regions**
793 +
794 +When clicking on the [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image112.png]] , the dialog appears:
795 +
796 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image113.png]]
797 +Figure: Punching region toolwindow
798 +
799 +First the origin of the local system should be specified, which is also the calculation point for punching. The punching force is taken from the finite element corner node closest to the local system’s origin.
800 +
801 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image023.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] Before analysis, the user should place a fixed point in Finite element tab, where a punching calculation is planned to be performed, because in this way it will be surely a corner node, leading to higher precision in punching calculation.**
802 +
803 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image114.png]]
804 +Figure: Punching region example
805 +
806 +If you pick a punching force calculation point away from the region the following appears:
807 +
808 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image115.png]]
809 +
810 +The punching regions can be modified like with Modify region command and **Reset** back to original shape if the punching region was automatically generated.
811 +
812 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image116.png]]
813 +
814 +Punching utilization results can be displayed for the entire model with //New result > RC punching > Utilization//. Maximum utilization in table format can be also shown with //Numeric value//. Detailed utilization results can be asked by unique or grouped punching zones with [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image013.png||alt="icon_autodesign2"]] (see later). Different colors display the adequacy of the checked punching zones.
815 +
816 +
817 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image117.png||alt="figure_punchingglobal_new"]]
818 +
819 +Figure: Global Auto design and its result
820 +
821 +
822 +|(((
823 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image013.png||alt="icon_autodesign2"]]
824 +)))
825 +
826 +Element-based //Auto design// checks the utilizations against punching and finds required reinforcement for selected zones and/or design groups of zones. Initial settings can be set for required reinforcement by bended bar, circularly placed stirrup and open stirrup types with the [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image014.png||alt="icon_properties"]] //Parameters// tool of //Auto design//.
827 +
828 +
829 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image118.png||alt="figure_design parameters_new"]]
830 +
831 +Figure: Design parameters by punching reinforcement type
832 +
833 +The symbols of the design parameters are stored on the //Punching, design parameters// object layer.
834 +
835 +To run element-based design for the load combinations or the maximum of load groups, select the required zones and/or groups with the //Auto design// command and click [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image016.png||alt="icon_design"]] //Design// tool. The quick process runs detailed utilization and finds the suitable bar diameters for the additional reinforcement.
836 +
837 +Check the tool palette’s //Display table// box to have a look at the overall utilization results.
838 +
839 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image119.png||alt="figure_punchinagauto_new2"]]
840 +
841 +Figure: Quick summary of Auto design results
842 +
843 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image023.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **The ID of design groups can be shown with the //Punching, design groups// object layer.
844 +
845 +The upper table shows the design efficiency and the maximal utilization of the designed punching zones based on the given design parameters. The bottom table displays the utilization details of elements or design members.
846 +
847 +| |**Meaning**
848 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.png||alt="icon_designOK"]]|RC column is suitable for punching without or with shear reinforcement
849 +|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image120.png]]|(((
850 +Suitable shear reinforcement is not available
851 +
852 +Note: Modify the slabs’ surface reinforcement or the design parameters.
853 +)))
854 +|Group|ID of a unique punching zone or design group
855 +|Design parameters|The suitable bar diameter and other design parameters as the reinforcement type
856 +|Total weight|(((
857 +* The “-“ symbol displays that no shear reinforcement is applied
858 +* Total weight of applied punching reinforcement
859 +)))
860 +|Max|Max. utilization of a unique zone or the significant zone of a group
861 +|Min|Max. utilization of the less significant group member
862 +|Punching|ID of a unique column or a design group member
863 +|CC|Utilization for concrete compress
864 +|CS|Utilization for concrete shear
865 +|RS|Utilization for reinforcement shear
866 +
867 +Table: The meaning of symbols, design parameters and utilization results
868 +
869 +Quick redesign can be done inside the //Utilization// table:
870 +
871 +**1**                    Select a punching zone or a design group in the upper table.
872 +
873 +**2**                    Modify the design parameters of the current elements under //Parameters//.
874 +
875 +**3**                    Click //Design//.
876 +
877 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image023.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] Detailed result** summarizes the applied formulas by the design modes and display the applied shear reinforcement (if needed) drawing too.
878 +
879 +==== Manual Design ====
880 +
881 +
882 +|(((
883 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image015.png||alt="icon_manualdesign2"]]
884 +)))
885 +
886 +//Manual design// gives tools to define new (applied) punching reinforcement in concrete plates, or to modify/redefine the reinforcement generated by //Auto design//.
887 +
888 +
889 +The rules of new reinforcement definition, if predefined reinforcement already exists from //Auto design//:
890 +
891 +* new same-type reinforcement will be added to applied reinforcement,
892 +* new different type reinforcement always overwrites the previously defined one, and
893 +* new “open stirrup”-type reinforcement always overwrites the previously defined reinforcement even if it was “open stirrup”.
894 +
895 +|(((
896 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image121.png||alt="symbol_punchingbartypes"]]
897 +)))
898 +
899 +**~ **First choose the type of the new reinforcement. If you would like to modify/refine a previously defined (generated by //Auto design// or defined by //Manual design// in an earlier phase) reinforcement, you also need to set the required type from the drop-down list of //Manual design//. The [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image042.png]] //Properties// tool of //Manual design// can be used for modifying actions.
900 +
901 +
902 +The tools of //Manual design// depends on the selected reinforcement type.
903 +
904 +**Bended bar**
905 +
906 +First set the reinforcement properties under //Default settings//, and choose the bar direction according to the local system directions of the related column. Then select the punching zone you would like to be reinforced (with totally new or additional reinforcement) and place the new bars.
907 +
908 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image122.png]]
909 +
910 +Figure: New bended bar
911 +
912 +**Stirrup, circular**
913 +
914 +First set the reinforcement properties under //Default settings//, then select the punching zone you would like to be reinforced, and finally define the circular form with its inner radius.
915 +
916 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image123.png]]
917 +
918 +Figure: New stirrups in circular shape
919 +
920 +**Stirrup, open**
921 +
922 +First set the reinforcement properties under //Default settings//, then select a geometrical shape (e.g. rectangular, circular, polygonal) for the stirrup position. Select the punching zone you would like to be reinforced, and finally define the shape in the model view.
923 +
924 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image124.png]]
925 +
926 +Figure: New open stirrups
927 +
928 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image067.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **In case of design groups, the applied reinforcement of the **group Master** is editable only. Other group members have symbolic reinforcement figure.
929 +
930 +**Stud rail (general and PSB product)**
931 +
932 +First set the reinforcement properties, placement shape under //Default settings//, then set the number of studs and select punching region to place the studs.
933 +
934 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image125.png]]
935 +
936 +Figure: New PSB studs
937 +
938 +
939 +
940 +|(((
941 +
942 +)))
943 +
944 +Running global// //(//Calculate > Design calculations > Check//) or element-based //Check// the program gives utilization result for the applied punching reinforcement.
945 +
946 +
947 +==== Detailed Result ====
948 +
949 +Utilization of punching reinforcement can be displayed in the following cases:
950 +
951 +* After global //Auto design//, you can display utilization calculated from the suggested applied reinforcement.
952 +* When running element-based //Auto design//, utilization can be displayed by designed elements.
953 +* After //Manual design//, element-based //Check// displays utilization for selected zones.
954 +* Global //Check// done for final applied reinforcement.
955 +
956 +|No.|**Global Auto design**|**Element-based Auto des.**|**Element-based Check**|**Global Check**
957 +|1|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image011.png||alt="icon_calculate"]] //Calculate>Design calculation>Auto design all structural elements//|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image013.png||alt="icon_autodesign2"]] //Auto design//|(((
958 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image013.png||alt="icon_autodesign2"]] //Auto design// and/or
959 +
960 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image015.png||alt="icon_manualdesign2"]] //Manual design//
961 +)))|(((
962 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image013.png||alt="icon_autodesign2"]] //Auto design// and/or
963 +
964 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image015.png||alt="icon_manualdesign2"]] //Manual design//
965 +)))
966 +|2|(((
967 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image046.png||alt="icon_newresult"]] //New result >//
968 +
969 +//RC punching//
970 +)))|(((
971 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image046.png||alt="icon_newresult"]] //New result >//
972 +
973 +//RC punching//
974 +)))|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image047.png||alt="icon_check"]] //Check//|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image017.png||alt="icon_applychanges"]] Apply changes
975 +|3| | |(((
976 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image046.png||alt="icon_newresult"]] //New result >//
977 +
978 +//RC punching//
979 +)))|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image011.png||alt="icon_calculate"]] //Calculate>Design calculation>Check all structural elements//
980 +|4| | | |(((
981 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image046.png||alt="icon_newresult"]] //New result >//
982 +
983 +//RC punching//
984 +)))
985 +
986 +Table: Steps of displaying punching utilization by different design cases
987 +
988 +
989 +|(((
990 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image048.png||alt="icon_detailedresult"]]
991 +)))
992 +
993 +Utilization displayed with //New result// appears for all designed punching zones. The utilization components with calculation formulas and the applied reinforcement (if needed) can be displayed with //Detailed result//.
994 +
995 +
996 +//Detailed result// opens a new window in the current project after selecting a unique zone or a member zone of a design group, which display:
997 +
998 +* **Design parameters and applied reinforcement**
999 +
1000 +The figure displays the calculation perimeters, the design parameters and the applied reinforcement calculated by //Auto design// (if required) or defined in //Manual design//.
1001 +
1002 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image126.png||alt="figure_X5 punching_detail"]]
1003 +
1004 +Figure: Calculation perimeters, design parameters and applied reinforcement
1005 +
1006 +* **Detailed calculation formulas**
1007 +
1008 +Calculation details and final values are collected by checking types: //Concrete compression resistance //(Eurocode2: Part 1.1: 6.4.3), //Shear reinforcement resistance// (Part 1.1: 6.4.3) and //Concrete shear resistance// (Part 1.1: 6.4.3). The proper results are displayed in green, while the red result warnings you to repeat design. The content of the utilization checks depends on **Display options**. Not relevant checks can also be hidden.
1009 +
1010 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image127.png||alt="figure_X6 punching_detail2"]]
1011 +
1012 +Figure: Utilization formulas and tables
1013 +
1014 +* **Summary graph**
1015 +
1016 +//Summary// graph is displayed with legend by default.
1017 +
1018 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image128.png||alt="figure_X7 punching_det3"]]
1019 +
1020 +Figure: Utilization summary
1021 +
1022 +//[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image058.png||alt="icon_Detailedresult_tab"]] Tabmenu// contains the following tools and settings:
1023 +
1024 +* **Selection of zones checked for punching**
1025 +
1026 +You can choose a unique zone or a design group zone member from the drop-down lists to display its detailed results mentioned before. Each row displays the ID and the maximum utilization of a member. In case of a design group, “Maximum” means the significant member having the maximum utilization.
1027 +
1028 +* **Selection of design load**
1029 +
1030 +Depending on punching design was done for load combinations or load groups, a load combination or the maximum or a significant component of load groups can be selected for detailed results. Each row displays the name of the load combination/load group component and its utilization effect. “Maximum” means the significant load combination or component of load groups.
1031 +
1032 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image129.png||alt="figure_X8 punching_det4"]]
1033 +
1034 +Figure: Selection from checked elements and design loads
1035 +
1036 +* (((
1037 +|(((
1038 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image061.png||alt="icon_autodesign"]]
1039 +)))
1040 +
1041 +**Auto design**
1042 +)))
1043 +
1044 +Quick //Auto design// can be done for the currently displayed unique/grouped zone. Its design parameters can be set/modified in the appearing dialog, and then clicking //OK// starts punching design that updates all detailed result figures and tables.
1045 +
1046 +* (((
1047 +|(((
1048 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image062.png||alt="icon_displopt"]]
1049 +)))
1050 +
1051 +**Display options**
1052 +)))
1053 +
1054 +The content and the appearance of the detailed result can be set with //Display options//.
1055 +
1056 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image130.png||alt="figure_X9 punching_det5"]]
1057 +
1058 +Figure: Display options of Detailed result
1059 +
1060 +* (((
1061 +|(((
1062 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image064.png||alt="icon_goto"]]
1063 +)))
1064 +
1065 +**Go to**
1066 +)))
1067 +
1068 +Navigate in the //Detailed result// window by selecting the required design type in the drop-down list. It is useful when you are in zoomed view.
1069 +
1070 +
1071 +|(((
1072 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image018.png||alt="icon_documentation"]]
1073 +)))
1074 +
1075 +Click //Tools > Add view to document// to place all figures and tables or specified details only into //Documentation//.
1076 +
1077 +
1078 +=== Concealed bar reinforcement ===
1079 +
1080 +Concealed bar allows for designing certain parts of a shell as a bar. For example, a wall region over a door opening can be considered as a concealed beam. The internal forces from shell results are converted to bar internal forces and the checking is done on the bar.
1081 +
1082 +To define a concealed bar select the [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image131.png]] option then  //Specify concealed bar// [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image132.png]] , then select the RC slab or wall and specify the diagonal corners of a rectangulare region (or select exsisting rectangular region).
1083 +
1084 +The bar’s local co-ordinate system by default is parallel with the corresponding region’s local system, but there is an option to define skew concealed bar.
1085 +
1086 +[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image133.png]]
1087 +
1088 +
1089 +**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image067.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] ** The concealed bar’s reinforcement is not considered in the shell’s applied reinforcement.
1090 +
1091 +
1092 +
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