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Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
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5 Different modes can be used for displaying Analysis and Design results. This chapter summarizes the skills and settings of display results on the screen. Of course the result figures can be printed out or can be inserted to documents (see Documentation).
6
Fredrik Lagerström 146.3 7 = {{id name="Display Techniques"/}}Display Techniques =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 8
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 9 Finishing analysis and design calculations, the results are available in the list of the [[image:1585640841689-421.png]]// // //New// result command. Just click the command icon and browse from the results available from previously done calculations.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 10
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 11 [[image:1585640846946-680.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 12
13 Figure: Quick way for displaying results
14
15 Select a result data, then a display technique (//Display options//) for it, and finally, clicking //OK// displays the result figure based on the default or last-used settings of the applied display technique.
16
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 17 (% border="1" style="width:448px" %)
18 |(% style="width:146px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Display option**|(% colspan="2" style="background-color:#0076cb; width:299px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Available for**
19 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:146px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Display option**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:138px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**//Bar elements//**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:161px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**//Planar elements//**
20 |(% style="width:146px" %)**Graph**|(% style="text-align:center; width:138px" %)[[image:1585640907784-713.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:161px" %)[[image:1585640915823-682.png]]
21 |(% style="width:146px" %)**Contour Lines**|(% style="text-align:center; width:138px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:161px" %)[[image:1585640914472-553.png]]
22 |(% style="width:146px" %)**Color Palette**|(% style="text-align:center; width:138px" %)[[image:1585640909481-588.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:161px" %)[[image:1585640912929-801.png]]
23 |(% style="width:146px" %)**Sections**|(% style="text-align:center; width:138px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:161px" %)[[image:1585640911360-561.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 24
25 Table: General display options
26
27 If display options are not available for the selected result data, it will be displayed in one way. Some result types have special display modes.
28
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 29 (% border="1" style="width:817px" %)
30 | |(% colspan="2" style="background-color:#0076cb; width:535px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Available for**
31 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Display option**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**//Bar elements//**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:331px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**//Planar elements//**
32 |**Reactions/Connections**|(% colspan="2" style="text-align:center; width:535px" %)All type of supports and connections
33 |**Bi-directional results**| |(% style="width:331px" %)Principal internal forces, required reinforcement shown simultaneously in all directions
34 |**Principal directions**| |(% style="width:331px" %)Directions of principal internal forces
35 |**Crack width**| |(% style="width:331px" %)Result of crack width calculation (RC Design)
36 |**Punching results**| |(% style="width:331px" %)Punching check results (RC Design)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 37
38 Table: Special display options
39
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 40 For bar elements, the currently displayed result (e.g. displacement, internal forces, utilization for RC/steel/timber design etc.) can be detailed by selected bar with the [[image:1585641131300-192.png]] Detailed result command.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 41
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 42 |[[image:light.png]]|The scale / color distribution of the current figure can be modified fast with Quick editing tools or with the [[image:1585641188914-526.png]] Display option.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 43
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 44 == Graph ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 45
46 By choosing //Graph// display option, the result values (e.g. displacement, internal forces etc.) will measured and displayed in their calculation point (finite element nodes).
47
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 48 [[image:1585641200237-102.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 49
50 Figure: Displacement of a slab in different views and display modes
51
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 52 [[image:1585641206926-479.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 53
54 Figure: Moment and shear diagrams of beam elements
55
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 56 The settings of the currently displayed graph can be modified with the [[image:1585641217015-286.png]] //Display options// tool.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 57
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 58 [[image:1585641213241-873.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 59
60 Figure: Display settings of graphs (planar and linear)
61
62 The following options can be modified and set for a graph:
63
64 * **Scale factor**
65 It sets the display scale of the graph (enlarge (>1) or reduce (<1)). //Scaling value//, which is the absolute or relative maximum of the current result type, helps you in setting the scale factor.
66 * **Reset absolute vs. Reset relative**
67 Pressing the buttons fits the //Scale factor// to the absolute or relative maximum of the same type results on the current structure.
68 * **Graph color**
69 The color of the result and the positive/negative values (available for bar elements only) can be set by clicking the “colored line” button and by browsing requested colors from a palette. The button shows the actual color set for the displayed graph.
70 * **Step** (available for bar elements only)
71 It is the distances between the points in which you can ask and display numeric values.
72
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 73 == Contour Lines ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 74
75 //Contour lines// are a set of color lines. Each line connects points having the same result value and displays them with one color. It is similar to the contours of a topographical map which connect contiguous points of the same altitude.
76
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 77 [[image:1585641240267-720.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 78
79 Figure: Contour lines
80
81 //Contour lines// display technique is developed to display results of plates, walls, shells etc. Two types of contour lines are available: “//Continuous//” and “//Discrete//”.
82
83 “//Continuous//”-type contour lines contain colored line by equal step, while lines can be defined in arbitrary distribution with the “//Discrete//”. You can define as many colors as you want for the contour lines.
84
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 85 [[image:1585641246771-127.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 86
87 Figure: Continuous and discrete contour lines
88
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 89 The distribution and color settings of the currently displayed contour lines can be modified with the [[image:1585641256142-985.png]] //Display options// tool:
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 90
91 * **“Palette” settings**
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 92 [[image:1585641267618-873.png]] Choose the required contour palette type: continuous or discrete.
93 [[image:1585641289910-969.png]] The active option displays the meanings of the color (palette symbol) on the screen next to the result. //Size ~(%)// defined the size of the palette symbol, if it is displayed on screen.
94 \\In case of “Continuous” palette, //Step// sets the distance between the neighboring contour lines and so the color distribution.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 95 //Pen width// sets the thickness of the contour lines on the screen.
96 * **“Value” settings**
Fredrik Lagerström 146.3 97 [[image:1585641321982-474.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 98 Defining a color and a value in the available numeric field, the //Insert// option inserts a new line into the palette with the given color line and at the given value. This option is mainly developed to define the “//Discrete//” palette.
99 \\[[image:1585641363333-510.png]]// Delete// option can be used to remove the unnecessary color line and its value currently selected in the palette with its ◄ symbol. It is equivalent with the “drag and drop out” of the line with its ◄ symbol.
100 \\[[image:1585641381266-506.png]] //Modify //option moves the contour line, which is currently selected in the palette, to the given value and/or changes its color with a color set under the option.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 101 * **“View” settings**
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 102 [[image:1585641405166-243.png]] Zoom functions to enlarge or reduce the range of the palette. The last status will be used for the palette symbol, if it is displayed by [[image:1585641435296-511.png]]** **.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 103 * **Reset absolute vs. Reset relative**
104 Pressing the buttons fits the top and bottom limits of the palette adjust to the absolute or relative maximum of the current result.
105
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 106 == Color Palette ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 107
108 //Color palette// is a set of colored regions. Each colored regions are represent values in a given interval. It is similar to //Contour line//, but not only the region borders but their inner areas are colored.
109
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 110 (% style="text-align:center" %)
111 [[image:1585641474410-741.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 112
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 113 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 114 Figure: Color palette used for displaying results for planar and bar elements
115
116 //Color palette// display technique is developed to display results of both planar and bar elements. Two types of color palettes are available: “//Continuous//” and “//Discrete//”.
117
118 “//Continuous//”-type contains colored zones by equal step, while the interval of the colored regions can be defined in arbitrary distribution with the “//Discrete//”. You can define as many colors as you want for the color palettes.
119
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 120 (% style="text-align:center" %)
121 [[image:1585641485097-894.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 122
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 123 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 124 Figure: Continuous and discrete color palette for planar objects
125
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 126 The distribution and color settings of the currently displayed color palette can be modified with the [[image:1585641498592-803.png]] //Display options// tool:
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 127
128 * **“Palette” settings**
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 129 [[image:1585641525960-243.png]] Choose the required color palette type: continuous or discrete.
130 [[image:1585641546809-800.png]] The active option displays the meanings of the color (palette symbol) on the screen next to the result. //Size ~(%)// defined the size of the palette symbol, if it is displayed on screen.
131 \\In case of “Continuous” palette, //Step// sets the interval of the colored zones and so the color distribution.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 132 * **“Value” settings**
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 133 Defining a color and a value in the available numeric field, the //New// option inserts a new colored zone into the palette with the given color line and at the given bottom value. This option is mainly developed to define the “//Discrete//” palette.
134 //Delete// option can be used to remove the unnecessary colored zone and its value currently selected in the palette with its ◄ symbol of the bottom value. It is equivalent with the “drag and drop out” of the zone with the ◄ symbol.
135 //Modify //option moves the colored zone, which is currently selected in the palette, to the position defined by the given bottom value and/or changes its color with a color set under the option.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 136 * **“View” settings**
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 137 [[image:1585641611131-780.png]] Zoom functions to enlarge or reduce the range of the palette. The last status will be used for the palette symbol, if it is displayed by [[image:1585641618420-173.png]]** **.
138 [[image:1585641661034-535.png]] With //Scale to view// option turned ON, if User hides part of the structure, the palette will be rescaled automatically:
Fredrik Lagerström 146.3 139 [[image:1585641629301-118.png]] [[image:1585641633706-278.png]](((
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 140 |(% style="width:108px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1368px" %)If the result to be displayed needs wider scaling than the customized has, the program overwrites the scaling to the view.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 141 )))
142 * **Reset absolute vs. Reset relative**
143 Pressing the buttons fits the top and bottom limits of the palette adjust to the //absolute or relative maximum// of the current result.
144
145 Color palette display mode also gives the possibility to show displacement (=deformed shape) of surface/bar elements simultaneously the displayed result shown by color palette.
146
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 147 |(% style="width:108px" %)[[image:1585641776956-801.png]]|(% style="width:1368px" %)Apply //Deformed shape// for the color palette of //Mx'// plate result (//Analysis/ Plate internal forces//). First display //Mx' //with //Color palette//, and then open the palette's setting with the [[image:1585641795209-950.png]] //Display options// tool. Open the //Others// tab of the color palette dialog, and mark the //Display with the deformed shape //checkbox.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 148
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 149 (% style="text-align:center" %)
150 [[image:1585641802333-737.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 151
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 152 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 153 Figure: Color palette result displayed with deformed shape (planar elements)
154
155 Deformed shape can be also shown together with a color palette result (My’) of bars.
156
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 157 (% style="text-align:center" %)
158 [[image:1585641816581-669.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 159
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 160 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 161 Figure: Color palette result displayed with deformed shape (bar elements)
162
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 163 |(% style="width:108px" %)[[image:1585641776956-801.png]]|(% style="width:1368px" %)Option to hide finite elements for colour palette results
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 164
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 165 To hide the finite elements from the result, click on the [[image:1585641853590-982.png]] icon. In the pop-up window, //Surface, colour palette// click the //Others// tab and uncheck the box next to //Show finite elements,// then click ’OK’.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 166
167 Picture No. 3. shows the result without the finite elements grids.
168
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 169 [[image:1585641871581-694.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 170
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 171 == Sections ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 172
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 173 Results of planar objects, which are able to be shown with (% class="wikiinternallink" %)//Graph//(%%) mode, can be displayed in given section lines.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 174
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 175 [[image:1585641938966-509.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 176
177 Figure: Result displayed in sections
178
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 179 Use the [[image:1585641945869-411.png]] //Define// tool to the position of a section line. Just give the start and end point of the new section. You can continuously define next points with [[image:1585641957701-157.png]] for further sections, such as you define a polyline; or stop the definition with the [[image:1585642142638-190.png]] mouse button or the [[image:1585642135195-915.png]] key.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 180
181 After defining sections, the program fixes the section positions, so the next result - selected for displaying with //Sections// - will be displayed in the same section lines. For example, you can easily and fast check the same parts of a slab, wall etc. for different internal forces, loads or load combinations.
182
Fredrik Lagerström 94.2 183 |(% style="width:63px" %)[[image:1585642166795-953.png]]|(% style="width:1413px" %)Display an analysis result (e.g. //Mx’//) and one of its derivatives in design (e.g. //Required reinforcement, bottom, x'//) in the same section positions. Select the first result type with “//Sections//” display option, and define sections with their start and end points. Choosing the next result (e.g. //Rqd. Reinforcement, bottom, x’//) with [[image:1585642173130-336.png]] will be displayed in the same positions.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 184
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 185 [[image:1585642247486-816.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 186
187 Figure: Section positions are stored for next results
188
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 189 To modify the color and hatch settings of the displayed sections, click [[image:1585642255651-573.png]] //Display options// and open the settings dialog with the [[image:1585642267846-764.png]] tool of the Section option.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 190
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 191 Additional sections with the current settings can be added to the view with the [[image:1585642274940-552.png]] //Define// tool. Unnecessary sections can be removed with the [[image:1585642285567-926.png]] //Delete section// tool by just their selection.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 192
193 * **Scale factor**
194 It sets the display scale of the sections (enlarge (>1) or reduce (<1)). //Scaling value//, which is the absolute or relative maximum of the current result type, helps you in setting the scale factor.
195 * **Reset absolute vs. Reset relative**
196 Pressing the buttons fits the //Scale factor// to the //absolute or relative maximum// of the same type results on the current structure.
197 * **Positive/Negative values**
198 The color of the positive/negative values can be set by clicking the “colored line” button and by browsing requested colors from a palette. The buttons show the actual color.
199 * **Step**
200 It is the distances between the points in which you can ask and display //numeric values// and the displayed hatch lines.
201 * **Distribution**
202 The distribution of the displayed section results can be chosen. Besides the calculated distribution it can be linear or constant.
203
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 204 |(% style="width:93px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1383px" %)This function can be useful at checking the average in-plane shear force between profiled panels.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 205
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 206 (% style="text-align:center" %)
207 [[image:1585642344942-889.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 208
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 209 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 210 Figure: Section settings
211
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 212 == Labelled sections ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 213
214 Labelled section is a special section with a name that can be used to list shell internal forces along it.
215
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 216 (% style="text-align:center" %)
217 [[image:1585642361704-487.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 218
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 219 === **Naming** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 220
221 There are two ways, how to name a Labeled section
222
223 * **manual **- in the //Name //cell.
224 * **automatic **- if //Automatic name// option is checked. In this case, a shell should be selected first and its name will be set for the labelled section. Prefix and/or postfix can also be appended to it.
225
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 226 [[image:1585642372789-165.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 227
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 228 == Display displacements ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 229
230 Displacements can be displayed as graph, contour lines, colour palette or sections.
231
232 1. Select the type of displacement result (translational, rotational) you wish to be displayed.
233 1. Select the load case type and the load case.
234 1. Click in the display-style of the result under //Display options.//
235
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 236 [[image:1585642436523-881.png]]
237
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 238 The two result types:
239
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 240 [[image:1585642444525-431.png]][[image:1585642448645-885.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 241
242
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 243 == Display Reaction and Connection Forces ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 244
245 Reaction and connection forces can be displayed in supports and connection objects by type, by component, with group resultants, with the combination of them or the resultants at the middle of the support/connection.
246
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 247 [[image:1585642476349-144.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 248
249 Figure: Reaction forces and moments in a Wall and Column support (Plate module)
250
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 251 [[image:1585642482652-703.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 252
253 Figure: Reultants of the line support group
254
255 The color of a reaction/connection force component is represented by the proper direction component (x’, y’ or z’) of the support’s/connection’s local coordinate system. The color of the local system axes (directions) can be set at //Settings > All > Display > Local systems//.
256
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 257 To check and modify the settings of the displayed reaction/connection results, click [[image:1585642493609-522.png]] //Display options//.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 258
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 259 [[image:1585642499290-416.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 260
261 Figure: Display options of reactions and connection forces
262
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 263 === **Support/Connection types** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 264
265 First, choose from the available support/connection types (point/line/ surface) you would like to display. Of course, the results of all types can be displayed simultaneously.
266
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 267 === **Component** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 268
269 Choose component(s) (force/moment and directions) you would like to display in case of single/group support**// //**or connection.
270
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 271 === **Resultant** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 272
273 The force (//F//) and/or moment (//M//) resultant of group support reactions or connection forces can be displayed. Resultants appear with dashed lines on the screen
274
Fredrik Lagerström 111.2 275 [[image:1585642519336-859.png]] Quick selection buttons let you hide all or show selected components on the screen.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 276
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 277 === **Scale** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 278
279 It sets the display scale of the result diagrams (enlarge (>1) or reduce (<1)). The scaling value (shown in the grey fields), which is the absolute or relative maximum of the current result type, helps you in setting the scale factor. Pressing the //Reset absolute//** **or** **//Reset relative// buttons fits the //Scale factor// to the absolute or relative maximum of the same type results on the current project.
280
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 281 === **Distribution** ===
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 282
283 Different displaying modes can be chosen for line reactions/connection forces:
284
285 * **Original**
286 It displays the calculated result values.
287 * **Linear**
288 It displays linear mean value of the result by support/connection element, which is calculated by the area-weight method.
289 * **Constant**
290 It displays constant mean value of the result by support/connection element, which is calculated by the area-weight method.
291 * **Constant by element**
292 To solve singularity peaks at line reactions and connections, the program calculates the average value (constant mean value) of the reaction and connection forces by element.
293
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 294 |(% style="width:90px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1386px" %)In this case, you can easily insert numeric values by the constant section (//Numeric value //>// Find all local maximum/minimum//).
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 295
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 296 [[image:1585642583502-982.png]]
297
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 298 Figure: Line reactions displayed with “Constant by element”
299
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 300 [[image:1585642594423-171.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 301
302 Figure: The theory of the average calculation by element (Constant by element)
303
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 304 |(% style="width:90px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1386px" %)The “uplifted” part of the support/connection is taken into account by displaying the distribution of line support reactions and connection forces.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 305
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 306 [[image:1585642618684-556.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 307
308 Figure: Reaction distribution on ”Uplifted” connection
309
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 310 == Bi-Directional Results ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 311
312 In some cases (e.g. initial forces, reinforcement results etc.) two result components can be displayed together, in one diagram. At these results, numerical values are also displayed besides the directions.
313
314
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 315 [[image:1585642634950-546.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 316
317 Figure: Required bottom reinforcement displayed with directions and numeric values
318
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 319 The color and text settings of the currently displayed bi-directional result can be modified with the [[image:1585642641477-280.png]] //Display options// tool.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 320
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 321 [[image:1585642647650-291.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 322
323 Figure: Display settings of bi-directional results
324
Fredrik Lagerström 3.1 325 == Principal Directions ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 326
327 The direction of principal internal forces and stresses can be displayed in two ways:
328
329 * **“One size”**
330 The symbols of the principal directions are shown with uniform-length lines. The symbol line of the first principal direction is longer than the second ones.
331 * **“Proportional – scale”**
332 The length of a symbol line represents the size of the principal force/stress. The display scale factor can be customized according to the absolute/relative maximum of the result.
333 The algebraically **larger value **will be **the first** **principal value, **by default indicated with green colour**.** The algebraically **smaller value **will be **the second** **principal value**, by default indicated with red colour**.**
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 334
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 335
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 336 (% style="text-align:center" %)
337 [[image:1585642690351-574.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 338
339
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 340 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 341 Figure: One-sized or proportional-scaled principal results
342
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 343 The display type and the colors of the principal directions can be set and modified with the [[image:1585642713145-807.png]] //Display options// tool.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 344
345 Arrows at the ends of the lines are indicating whether the principal stresses are tension (positive) or compression (negative).
346
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 347 [[image:1585642727252-358.png]]
348
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 349 == Crack Width ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 350
351 Crack width results of RC slabs and bars can be displayed with crack lines. The lines represent the direction of the cracks, their pen width the size of the crack width and the color represents if the crack width exceeds the //allowed crack width//.
352
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 353 [[image:1585642734896-932.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 354
355 Figure: Crack width of RC slab
356
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 357 The length, width and color of the crack lines can be modified with the [[image:1585642743570-606.png]] //Display options// tool and the //allowed crack width //limit can be set in the Calculation parameters under RC design tab.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 358
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 359 [[image:1585642750487-168.png]][[image:1585642756904-934.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 360
361 Figure: Display settings of crack width result
362
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 363 == Design Utilization Results ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 364
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 365 Global// Auto design// and //Check// calculations give utilization results for planar and bar elements by the applied design type.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 366
367 Utilization results are colored figures (color palette), and summarize the list of maximum utilizations by elements in a table dialog with the help of the Numeric value// //tool.
368
369 Read more about the utilization results by design type: RC design, Steel design and Timber design.
370
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 371 [[image:1585642767059-345.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 372
373 Figure: RC bar design and utilization result
374
Fredrik Lagerström 127.2 375 [[image:1585642775119-214.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 376
377 Figure: RC punching design and utilization result
378
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 379 == Detailed 1D Object Result ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 380
Fredrik Lagerström 133.2 381 Detailed analytical results are available for one-dimensional analytical objects (e.g. bars, line support groups and connections) after clicking on [[image:1585642958201-317.png]] //Detailed result// tool and by selecting the object.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 382
Fredrik Lagerström 133.2 383 [[image:1585642962804-634.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 384
385 Figure: Detailed results on a line support and line connection
386
387 In Detailed result window the User can manage the results by selecting the object, the calculation and other - calculation dependent - options.
388
Fredrik Lagerström 133.2 389 [[image:1585642971403-664.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 390
391 Figure: Detailed result window
392
Fredrik Lagerström 133.2 393 The display type, colors and distribution mode of the detailed results can be set and modified with the [[image:1585642980942-849.png]] //Display options// tool.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 394
Fredrik Lagerström 133.2 395 [[image:1585642987081-864.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 396
397 Figure: Display result – display options
398
399 * **Diagram type**
400 //Common scale// displays the same-type result diagrams (e.g. My, Mz and Mt are moment diagrams) in common scale. The program automatically sets the scale value to the //absolute maximum// of the current result.
401 //Scale by figures// displays diagrams in their best scale. The scale values, the upper and bottom limits will be set by figure according to its own //absolute maximum// value (e.g. the scales of My and Mz differ from each other).
402 * **Positive/Negative values**
403 The color of the positive/negative values can be set by clicking the “colored line” button and by browsing requested colors from a palette. The buttons show the actual color.
404 * **Distribution**
405 The distribution of the selected result functions can be chosen (calculated, linear, constant or constant by element) for line support groups and connections.
406
407 The hatch line dense by the figures is the same with the “display steps” of the original bar result, on which the //Detailed result// tool was used.
408
409 Utilization results with detailed background calculation formulas (together with Eurocode references), figures and tables can be displayed by single elements or by design groups. Quick navigation is powered with zooming details. Read more about //Detailed results// by design type: //RC design//, //Steel design//, //Timber design //and// //Foundation design.
410
Fredrik Lagerström 133.2 411 (% style="text-align:center" %)
412 [[image:1585643021487-249.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 413
Fredrik Lagerström 133.2 414 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 415 Figure: Detailed design result (RC bar design)
416
Fredrik Lagerström 146.3 417 = {{id name="“Absolute” vs. “Relative” Maximum Value"/}}“Absolute” vs. “Relative” Maximum Value =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 418
419 The //Absolute maximum// and //Relative maximum// options of the display settings search the maximum values of a result component in all diagrams independently the negative and positive signs. //Relative maximum// finds the maximum value of the current diagram with its absolute value for the current load case/combination/group. //Absolute maximum //finds the maximum value of the same type results (e.g. shear force diagrams) with its absolute value for all load cases/combinations/groups.
420
421 Let’s see an example to understand the meaning of “absolute” and “relative” maximum values.
422
Fredrik Lagerström 143.2 423 |(% style="width:75px" %)[[image:1585643149526-285.png]]|(% style="width:1401px" %)Let’s display the Tz shear force diagram of a frame structure in case of two different load combinations. The next table summarizes the positive and negative maximum values of both diagrams.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 424
Fredrik Lagerström 143.2 425 (% style="width:590px" %)
426 |(% style="width:171px" %) |(% colspan="4" style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:416px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Maximum values**
427 |(% style="background-color:#0076cb; width:171px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Display option**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:116px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Positive**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:111px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Negative**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:95px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Relative**|(% style="background-color:#0076cb; text-align:center; width:94px" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Absolute**
428 |(% style="width:171px" %)Load combination 01|(% style="width:116px" %)9.37|(% style="width:111px" %)**-9.42**|(% style="width:95px" %)(% style="color:#3498db" %)**9.42**|(% style="width:94px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)**10.20**
429 |(% style="width:171px" %)Load combination 02|(% style="width:116px" %)**10.20**|(% style="width:111px" %)-8.67|(% style="width:95px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)**10.20**|(% style="width:94px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)**10.20**
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 430
431 Table: Maximum values of the same-type result diagrams (Tz)
432
Fredrik Lagerström 143.2 433 [[image:1585643212306-658.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 434
435 Figure: The values found by Reset absolute/relative
436
Fredrik Lagerström 146.3 437 = {{id name="Automatic minimum and maximum numeric value display"/}}Automatic minimum and maximum numeric value display =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 438
Fredrik Lagerström 143.2 439 (% style="width:762px" %)
440 |(% style="width:483px" %)The program is capable to show automatically the local or global minimum and/or maximum values of the displayed result. Automatically displayed values will be shown in blue, while values displayed by manual query remain black. It can be set to show the minimum and/or maximum values of all results across all visible objects, or local extreme values for visible each object.|(% style="width:276px" %)[[image:1585643235581-727.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 441
Fredrik Lagerström 143.2 442 |(% style="width:74px" %)[[image:1585643271132-408.png]]|(% style="width:1402px" %)(((
443 Let’s display the my’ moment results of a 3 storey building. The next figures shows the difference between showing the automatic results (minumum and maximum) for //all visible objects// and //values by object//. On the right figure the „by object” option choosed so the the program shows the results of the minimum and maximum values of each plates. On the left figure the „for all visible objects” option choosed, the displayed results will be the extreme maximum and extreme minimum values of all 6 plates.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 444 )))
445
Fredrik Lagerström 143.2 446 [[image:1585643304188-644.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 447
Fredrik Lagerström 143.2 448 |[[image:light.png]]|When in storey view, ‘All visible objects’ means the objects on that storey
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 449
450 This is also available for each result (even for analysis detailed results, as shown below) where minimum/maximum can be displayed by the //Numeric value// function.
451
Fredrik Lagerström 143.2 452 [[image:1585643346937-791.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 453
454 The last selected display settings for display automatic values are applied for all the new results, until they are modified by the user.
455
456 These settings are kept for the results when
457
458 * they are added to the documentation,
459 * they are hidden then shown again,
460 * the model is recalculated (naturally, only the display settings stay the same – the actual numerical values will be refreshed according to the new results).
461
462 In many cases displaying local minimum/maximum numeric values gives too many values due to small, unimportant peaks. Filtering slide lets User decide on how big differences between result of neighbouring nodes he wants to consider as local minimum/maximum.
463
Fredrik Lagerström 143.2 464 [[image:1585643372352-790.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 465
Fredrik Lagerström 146.6 466 = {{id name="Style Templates"/}}Style Templates =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 467
Fredrik Lagerström 143.2 468 Display settings (scale, colors, steps etc.) can be stored in files (so-called styles) by display technique or by figure. The saving and the loading facilities can be reached at the [[image:1585643406943-807.png]] //Display options// tool. The styles are stored in files with different file extensions by display technique. The files can be swapped between users, so companies can create standard display setting for their own documentation style.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 469
Fredrik Lagerström 143.2 470 [[image:1585643391022-646.png]]
471
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 472 * (((
473 **Save as default**
Fredrik Lagerström 143.2 474 It saves the current display settings as the default (without file name!) settings of the applied display technique. If you do not use a style (see later), the program always offer the last saved default settings when you apply the same technique inside one example or in further ones.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 475 )))
476 * (((
477 **Load default**
Fredrik Lagerström 146.1 478 It restores the default display settings after any change.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 479 )))
480 * (((
481 **Save**
Fredrik Lagerström 146.1 482 The color settings of the current dialog can be saved as a style in a template file. The file extension depends on the current display technique.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 483 )))
484 * (((
485 **Save with scale**
Fredrik Lagerström 146.1 486 All display settings (scale, steps, colors etc.) of the current dialog can be saved as a named style in a template file.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 487 )))
488 * (((
489 **Load**
Fredrik Lagerström 146.1 490 User-defined styles can be loaded from a file browser.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 491 )))
492
Fredrik Lagerström 146.1 493 |(% style="width:56px" %)[[image:1585643490238-405.png]]|(% style="width:1420px" %)The following example helps in understanding the difference between //Save //and //Save with scale //after loading styles created by them. The color palette settings of an //Mx// internal force diagram was saved with //Save// and //Save with scale//. The figure shows the settings of //My// also displayed with color palette after loading (//Load//) the two saved styles. After loading “//Save//”-style, the palette contains the same colors but the scale is optimized for //My// values. Loading “Save with scale”-style results the same scale together with the same color information with //Mx//.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 494
Fredrik Lagerström 146.1 495 (% style="text-align:center" %)
496 [[image:1585643516181-498.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 497
Fredrik Lagerström 146.1 498 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 499 Figure: Save vs. Save with scale
500
Fredrik Lagerström 146.4 501 = {{id name="Numeric Values"/}}Numeric Values =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 502
Fredrik Lagerström 4.1 503 == Tool Tip ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 504
505 Rolling your
506
507 Rolling your mouse over a result picture will display the numeric value in the current position and in the proper metrical unit as a tool tip. Tool tip works for all types of display techniques.
508
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 509 [[image:1585640645463-589.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 510
511 Figure: Numeric value displayed by tool tip
512
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 513 == Value Labeling ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 514
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 515 Result diagrams can be completed by displaying the calculated numeric values. Use the [[image:1585640657580-166.png]] //Numeric value// tool to add labels to the currently displayed result figure.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 516
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 517 [[image:1585640663482-407.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 518
519 Figure: Tool palettes of Numeric value
520
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 521 Depending on the currently displayed result figure and the object type – you would like to ask numeric values – the tool palette of //Numeric value// contains different definition tools. With the [[image:1585640670942-643.png]] //Define //tool, new value labels can be placed on the current figure.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 522
523 The color of the numeric values can be set with the “Current color” button of the Status bar. Of course, you can place values with different colors on a result figure. For example the maximum values can be displayed in red while the others with black.
524
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 525 Set the text settings of the numeric values at [[image:1585640680971-261.png]] //Default settings//.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 526
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 527 [[image:1585640685597-955.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 528
529 Figure: Numeric value settings
530
531
532 The next figures give examples for the tools of //Numeric value//.
533
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 534 Use [[image:1585640694571-933.png]] //Select// to place numeric values in clicking points of the displayed result. With [[image:1585640700539-267.png]] tool, result maximum, minimum and absolute maximum/minimum can be found for selected object(s). With [[image:1585640706697-619.png]] tool, all result limits (maximum and/or minimum) can be displayed for selected object(s).
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 535
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 536 [[image:1585640712967-682.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 537
538 Figure: Arbitrary and maximum values (bar displacement)
539
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 540 [[image:1585640720375-187.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 541
542 Figure: Arbitrary and maximum values (plate internal forces)
543
544
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 545 [[image:1585640731503-547.png]] [[image:1585640737555-606.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 546
547 Figure: Display numeric values (with Select) on a Contour palette result
548
549 In case of bar displacement, points can be selected for displaying numeric values on bars (//Original shape//) or on the //deformed shape// of the bars.
550
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 551 [[image:1585640746689-740.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 552
553 Figure: Numeric values displayed on the original and deformed shapes
554
555 Bar displacement can be asked with its real size (//Vector size//) or by its component (parallel with the global/local x’/y’ or a given direction).
556
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 557 [[image:1585640754547-168.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 558
559 Figure: Numeric values by displacement component
560
Fredrik Lagerström 43.1 561 The display settings of predefined numeric values can be modified by the [[image:1585640762111-679.png]] //Properties// tool.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 562
563 The position of the text labels can be modified independently from their insertion (clicking) point with //Move// (//Edit// menu).
564
Fredrik Lagerström 146.7 565 = {{id name="Editing Results"/}}Editing Results =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 566
Fredrik Lagerström 26.1 567 [[image:1585640546998-187.png]] The settings of the currently displayed result can be modified with the //Display options// tool any time. The content of the setting possibilities (colors, scale, palettes etc.) depends on the display technique used for the visible result.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 568
Fredrik Lagerström 26.1 569 |(% style="width:158px" %)(((
570 [[image:1585640554649-888.png]]
571 )))|(% style="width:1318px" %)Above //Display options//, quick change tools give fast and real-time modification in scale/color distribution (step) of the current result figure and in size and decimal numbers of displayed numeric values. Quick change tools work for all type of display techniques. The next figures show some examples.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 572
Fredrik Lagerström 26.1 573 [[image:1585640582309-730.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 574
575 Figure: Modifying diagram scale
576
577 //Scale //increases/decreases the scale (e.g. graph, section) or the step distribution (e.g. contour lines, color palette) of the currently displayed result figure with 10% percent. Use the “//+”// or “//–“// key of the keyboard’s numeric pad as the fast key of //Increase// //scale// or //Reduce scale//.
578
579 The numeric values are refreshed automatically when the display options of a result are modified.
580
Fredrik Lagerström 26.1 581 [[image:1585640597801-318.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 582
583 Figure: Modifying the text size of numeric values
584
585 //Font size// modifies the font size of the numeric values with 10% of the initial size.
586
Fredrik Lagerström 26.1 587 [[image:1585640604214-956.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 588
589 Figure: Modifying the decimal numbers of numeric values
590
Fredrik Lagerström 146.7 591 = {{id name="Browsing Results"/}}Browsing Results =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 592
Fredrik Lagerström 20.1 593 A one-click browser (//Quick selection//) is developed for changing between result figures displayed earlier on the screen. By clicking on “▼” symbol next to [[image:1585638202894-971.png]]// // //Select result//, a list appears with titles of results displayed so far. Just click on the result you wish to display again. The content of the list can be organized with //Select result//: hide current figure or delete items.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 594
Fredrik Lagerström 20.1 595 [[image:1585638196416-253.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 596
597 Figure: Quick or dialog browsing among previously displayed results
598
Fredrik Lagerström 146.3 599 = {{id name="Animation"/}}Animation =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 600
Fredrik Lagerström 17.1 601 [[image:1585638098430-819.png]] The currently displayed results can be animated with the //Animate result// tool. Not only for bar results (such as dynamic and stability results, displacement, internal force/stress diagrams etc.), but all result display types of planar elements (such as displacement, internal forces, RC results, utilizations etc.) can be animated. That means graph points are moving, the colors and color intervals are pulsing etc. Clicking //Animate result// starts the animation after some seconds (depending on the model size) by continuously displaying the linear interpolation statuses between the initial and the final states of the current result figure. Press any key or click by mouse the stop animation.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 602
Fredrik Lagerström 17.1 603 [[image:1585638104384-916.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 604
605 Figure: Animation of a frame displacement
606
Fredrik Lagerström 146.3 607 = {{id name="Moving load results"/}}Moving load results =
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 608
609 Special results can be displayed for Moving loads, described below.
610
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 611 == Moving load maximum ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 612
613 Moving load maximum is similar to Maximum of load combinations. It shows the maximum values of the selected result in all points of the model, under the effects of a Moving Load. User can change the Load combination and the Moving load of which results he or she wants to display.
614
Fredrik Lagerström 10.1 615 [[image:1585637811592-545.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 616
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 617 == Moving load influence line ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 618
619 The Moving load influence line shows how the value of the selected result changes in a user-defined point of an object, while the Vehicle moves along the path.
620
621 User can define it with the following steps:
622
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 623 [[image:1585637837700-882.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 624
625 The results are displayed similarly to the one in the figure below:
626
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 627 [[image:1585637845513-449.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 628
Fredrik Lagerström 14.1 629 |(% style="width:97px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1379px" %)Since Moving loads are based on singular load cases, these result values are exact only in the Vehicle positions. The other points of the curve show approximate values. Accuracy can be increased by defining more Vehicle positions, however, it increases calculation time, too.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 630
Fredrik Lagerström 2.1 631 == Moving load’s cases ==
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 632
633 Although Moving loads are based on singular load cases, they are managed differently than regular load cases. It is possible to create an animated result for a Moving load. The figure below shows the method:
634
Fredrik Lagerström 8.1 635 [[image:1585637715517-121.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 636
637 The animation displays the changing of the selected result while the Vehicle moves along the path.
638
639 The next figure describes the new Moving load’s cases dialog:
640
Fredrik Lagerström 8.1 641 [[image:1585637724532-466.png]]
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 642
Fredrik Lagerström 8.1 643 |(% style="width:99px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1377px" %)Animate result button in the Moving load’s cases dialog has a different effect than the regular Animate result button in the Analysis and the Design tabs.
Fredrik Lagerström 1.1 644
645
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