# Wiki source code of Design

1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
2 {{toc/}}
3 {{/box}}
4
5 Depending on the current FEM-Design module you can do different design calculations for concrete, steel and timber model elements. This chapter summarizes the design possibilities and results by design type.
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11 [[image:1585299379349-479.png]]
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13 Figure: Design calculation settings
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15 |[[image:warning.png]]|(((
16 Although analysis can be run for load combinations and load groups in the same time, design calculation results exist only either for the load combinations or the maximum of load groups.
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18 The //Shell design// can be done only for load combination, because it based on stability results.
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20 Serviceability load combination is considered only in RC bar and shell design, other design is done just for ultimate load combinations.
21 )))
22
23 = {{id name="Buckling Length Factors"/}}Buckling Length Factors =
24
25 Buckling length is claimed input data of all bar element design (RC/steel/timber columns, beams). The buckling length is determined from the bar length and a factor depends on bar end connections. For typical end conditions (hinged, fixed, cantilever etc.), proposed //beta// factors are available for flexural buckling.
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27 (% style="text-align:center" %)
28 [[image:1585299929667-411.png]]
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30 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
31 Figure: Proposed beta factors for flexural buckling
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33 |(% style="width:119px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1371px" %)(((
34 Buckling length of a [[//Truss member//>>doc:Manuals.User Manual.Structure definition.Truss member (Geometry).WebHome]]**// //**element is equal to its length, so buckling length of trusses cannot be modified.
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36 The default //beta// factor is 1.0 for both flexural and torsional buckling.
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38 The defined buckling length fundamentally influences the design results.
39 )))
40
41 = {{id name="Design Groups"/}}Design Groups =
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43 Elements having certain common properties can be assigned to a //design group//, and the members in one group will be designed in the same way. For example, uniform reinforcement (longitudinal bars and stirrups) will be calculated for RC bars assigned to one design group, or the same profile will be designed for each steel bar of a design group, etc.
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45 General terms to be a design group member:
46
47 * Same design element type (beam, column, truss member, plate, wall or timber panel)
48 * Same material
49 * Same geometry (sizes, profiles etc.)
50 * Same design parameters (e.g. base reinforcement)
51
52 |(% style="width:117px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1373px" %)(((
53 Depending on specific cases/element types, additional conditions have to be materialized:
54
55 * Same support conditions
56 * Same end/edge connections
58 )))
59
60 n design mode, click [[image:1585300038207-950.png]] to group elements under a name and color.
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62 (% style="text-align:center" %)
63 [[image:1585300050197-106.png]]
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65 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
66 Figure: Design group tools
67
68 //Design group// tool provides the following group operations:
69
70 * [[image:1585300060953-250.png]] creates a new group,
71 * [[image:1585300066233-576.png]] edits the properties (name and color) of a selected group,
72 * [[image:1585300071552-484.png]] adds selected elements to the current group,
73 * [[image:1585300076097-239.png]] removes selected element from the group,
74 * [[image:1585300081808-976.png]] is available only in //Surface** **//and //Punching reinforcement// design. A group member has to be set as the “//Master//” that carries visually the representative applied reinforcement designed uniformly for the group. Only the “Master’s” applied reinforcement is editable; symbolic reinforcement is displayed for the other group members.
75 * [[image:1585300087999-843.png]] explodes/deletes a selected group.
76
77 |(% style="width:62px" %)[[image:1585300103704-604.png]]|(% style="width:1428px" %)(((
78 The next figures give examples of grouping same type steel bars, concrete slabs and beams.
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80 [[image:1585300136873-997.png]]
81
82 Figure: Some design groups of a steel frame
83
84 [[image:1585300142144-417.png]]
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86 Figure: Design groups of concrete slabs and beams
87 )))
88
89 User defined filters can be created from design group to modify of the design group member’s structural property in Structure tab.
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91 [[image:1585300152769-701.png]]
92
93 = {{id name="From Auto Design to Final Design"/}}From Auto Design to Final Design =
94
95 FEM-Design covers the whole RC, steel and timber design process by starting with automatic predesign (so-called “//Auto design//”) for the entire structure and/or by elements///design groups//, then by continuing with detailed //manual design// of the domain structural components and by ending with the final design (so-called “Check”) of the entire structure.
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97 (% style="text-align:center" %)
98 [[image:1585300234116-405.png]]
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100 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
101 Figure: From predesign of components till final global design
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103 |(% style="width:117px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1373px" %)(((
104 Although analysis can be done in one step for the entire structure independently of the element types (concrete, steel and timber), design calculations (and so the design modules) can be run separately by the element types (e.g. one after the other).
105 )))
106
107 |(% style="width:117px" %)[[image:1585300283762-464.png]]|(% style="width:1373px" %)(((
108 //Apply design changes and recalculate//: one-click validation of design changes in the current entire model together with analysis and design recalculation according to the new states. But, leaving Design mode, the design changes are always updated in the current model.
109 )))
110 |(% style="width:117px" %)[[image:1585300288386-798.png]]|(% style="width:1373px" %)(((
111 //Delete all applied quantity//: restores the model state previous to the applied design according to following settings dialog:
112
113 [[image:1585300309715-876.png]]
114 )))
115
116 == Auto Design ==
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118 Based on internal forces, utilization check and initial design settings, FEM-Design finds quickly and automatically the most suitable applied quantity depending on the design category and element type. The so-called “//Auto design//” makes a //proposal// for reinforcement distribution, for the applied profile, for the panel type, etc.
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120 |(% style="width:48px" %)[[image:1585300375597-978.png]]|(% style="width:1442px" %)//Auto design// can be done for the whole project with the //Calculate > Design calculations > Auto design all structural elements//. The fast algorithm uses the default calculation and design parameters of the elements and search for the most suitable applied quantity according to the utilization. //Auto design //automatically runs //Analysis// calculations (for //Load combinations// or //Load groups//), for //Stability// etc. depending on the design type: e.g. //Steel bar design// or //Shell design//.
121 |(% style="width:48px" %)[[image:1585300380122-988.png]]|(% style="width:1442px" %)//Auto design// can be applied for single elements and/or design groups only (without running design for the complete model).
122
123 The next table summarizes the initial design parameters and the results of //Auto design// by design categories and element types.
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125 (% border="1" style="width:1175px" %)
126 |=(% scope="row" style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 135px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Category|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 198px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Element type**|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 351px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Design parameter**|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 488px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Auto design**
127 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width: 135px;" %)//RC design//|(% style="width:198px" %)//Bar reinforcement//|(% style="width:351px" %)(((
128 Steel quality, bar diameter and profile, concrete cover
129 )))|(% style="width:488px" %)(((
130 Bar and stirrup distribution (numbers of bars, spacing)
131 )))
132 |(% style="width:198px" %)//Surface reinforcement//|(% style="width:351px" %)Steel quality, bar spacing, shape settings of the reinforcement regions, possible bar diameters|(% style="width:488px" %)Bar distribution, applied reinforcement regions and area, and bar diameter
133 |(% style="width:198px" %)//Punching reinforcement//|(% style="width:351px" %)(((
134 Steel quality, range of diameters, distribution shape (bended bar, circular stirrup, open stirrup)
135 )))|(% style="width:488px" %)Bar and stirrup sizes and distribution
136 |(% style="width:198px" %)//Concealed bar reinforcement//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*
137 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %)Steel Design|(% style="width:198px" %)//Steel bar//|(% style="width:351px" %)Range of cross-sections|(% style="width:488px" %)Suitable cross-section
138 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %) |(% style="width:198px" %)//Shell model//|(% style="width:351px" %)Range of plate thicknesses|(% style="width:488px" %)Suitable plate thickness
139 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %) |(% style="width:198px" %)//Steel joint design//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*
140 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %) |(% style="width:198px" %)//Fire design//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*
141 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %)//Timber design//|(% style="width:198px" %)//Timber bar//|(% style="width:351px" %)Range of cross-sections|(% style="width:488px" %)Suitable cross-section
142 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %) |(% style="width:198px" %)//Timber panel//|(% style="width:351px" %)Range of panel types|(% style="width:488px" %)Suitable panel type
143 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %) |(% style="width:198px" %)//CLT Panel//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*
144 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %) |(% style="width:198px" %)//Fire design//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*
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146 Table: Input parameters and the results of element-based Auto design
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148 Auto design gives summary tables, which display both the initial design parameters and the recommended (applied) quantities optimized to maximum utilization. All utilization details done by the Eurocode 2, 3 or 5 regulations can be also displayed.
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150 Fast redesign can be started from the table by modifying the design parameters.
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152 (% style="text-align:center" %)
153 [[image:1585300866770-579.png]]
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155 (% style="text-align: center;" %)
156 Figure: Summary table of Auto design (Bar reinforcement)
157
158 If the program is not able to find suitable parameters from the given/available design parameter range, it sends a warning message and marks the problematic elements/groups.
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160 |(% style="width:117px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1373px" %)(((
161 Leaving //Design// mode applies all design changes by updating the current model in order to be considered in a next recalculation. It also invalidates previous analysis results.
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163 In RC modules, //Auto design// results applied reinforcement that is considered in case of cracked-section analysis.
164 )))
165
166 == Manual Design ==
167
168 |(% style="width:60px" %)(((
169 [[image:1585300899032-822.png]]
170 )))|(% style="width:1430px" %)Following //Auto design//, “on-the-fly” fine tuning of applied quantities can be done by elements and design groups. In RC design, //Manual design// completes the applied reinforcement editing task for both concrete surface and bar elements.
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172 The manual design can be done without calculated analysis results in the following categories:
173
174 * RC design
175 * Steel design
176 * Timber design
177
178 |(% style="width:117px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1373px" %)(((
179 This function is useful especially at the analysis of an existing building.
180 )))
181
182 (% border="1" style="width:1175px" %)
183 |=(% scope="row" style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 135px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Category|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 198px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)**Element type**|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 351px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Possible initial data|=(% style="background-color: rgb(0, 118, 203); width: 488px;" %)(% style="color:#ffffff" %)Manual design
184 |=(% colspan="1" rowspan="4" style="width: 135px;" %)//RC design//|(% style="width:198px" %)//Bar reinforcement//|(% style="width:351px" %)Reinforcement come from Auto design|(% style="width:488px" %)Applied reinforcement (longitudinal bars and stirrups)
185 |(% style="width:198px" %)//Surface reinforcement//|(% style="width:351px" %)Reinforcement come from Auto design|(% style="width:488px" %)Applied reinforcement (top/bottom/middle RC)
186 |(% style="width:198px" %)//Punching reinforcement//|(% style="width:351px" %)Reinforcement come from Auto design|(% style="width:488px" %)Applied reinforcement (bended bar, circular stirrup, open stirrup)
187 |(% style="width:198px" %)//Concealed bar reinforcement//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*
188 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %)Steel Design|(% style="width:198px" %)//Steel bar//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)Applied cross-section
189 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %) |(% style="width:198px" %)//Shell model//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)Applied plate thickness
190 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %) |(% style="width:198px" %)//Steel joint design//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*
191 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %) |(% style="width:198px" %)//Fire design//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*
192 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %)//Timber design//|(% style="width:198px" %)//Timber bar//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)Applied cross-section
193 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %) |(% style="width:198px" %)//Timber panel//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)Applied panel type
194 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %) |(% style="width:198px" %)//CLT Panel//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*
195 |=(% style="width: 135px;" %) |(% style="width:198px" %)//Fire design//|(% style="width:351px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*|(% style="width:488px" %)(% style="color:#e74c3c" %)*
196
197 Table: Input parameters and the results of Manual design
198
199 |[[image:1585301265938-590.png]]|(((
200 The next figure gives an example for the reinforcement design of a concrete beam from starting with **//Auto design//** and finishing with detailing (//Manual design//).
201
202 [[image:1585301285137-839.png]]
203
204 Figure: Combined RC design
205 )))
206
207 (% style="display:none" %) (%%)
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209
210 |(% style="width:117px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1373px" %)(((
211 Leaving //Design// mode applies all design changes by updating the current model in order to be considered in a next recalculation. It also invalidates previous analysis results.
212
213 In RC modules, //Manual design// results applied reinforcement that is considered in case of cracked-section analysis.
214 )))
215
216 == Detailed Result ==
217
218 |(% style="width:50px" %)(((
219 [[image:1585301339474-433.png]]
220 )))|(% style="width:1440px" %)(((
221 Utilization results with detailed background calculation formulas (together with Eurocode references), figures and tables can be displayed by single elements or by design groups. Quick navigation is powered with zooming details.
222
223 [[image:1585301365677-132.png]]
224
225 Figure: Detailed result
226 )))
227
228 |(% style="width:64px" %)[[image:1585301397673-603.png]]|(% style="width:1426px" %)Of course, //Detailed result// is also available for the analysis (displacement, internal forces, and stresses) of bar elements.