<
From version < 157.1 >
edited by Fredrik Lagerström
on 2020/03/27 11:34
To version < 158.1 >
edited by Fredrik Lagerström
on 2020/03/27 11:38
>
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4 4  
5 5  Depending on the current FEM-Design module you can do different calculations: displacement, internal forces, stresses, stability, imperfections, stability analysis, eigenfrequencies and/or seismic analysis. Some extra settings such as cracked-section analysis, non-linear behaviour etc. are also available for certain modules.
6 6  
7 -|Analysis type/settings| | | | |[[image:image-20200327104026-5.png]]|
8 -|Analysis for load cases|[[image:image-20200327104026-7.png]]| | | |[[image:image-20200327104026-11.png]]|
9 -|Analysis for load combinations| | |[[image:image-20200327104026-15.png]]|[[image:image-20200327104026-16.png]]| |
10 -|Analysis for maximum of  load groups| |[[image:image-20200327104026-20.png]]| | |[[image:image-20200327104026-23.png]]|
11 -|Imperfections| | | | |[[image:image-20200327104026-26.png]]|
12 -|Second order analysis| | | | | |
13 -|Stability analysis| | | |[[image:image-20200327104026-29.png]]| |
14 -|Eigenfrequencies|[[image:image-20200327104026-31.png]]| | |[[image:image-20200327104026-34.png]]| |
15 -|Seismic analysis| | | | | |
16 -|Non-linear behavior|[[image:image-20200327104026-38.png]]| | | |[[image:image-20200327104026-42.png]]|
17 -|Cracked-section analysis| | | |[[image:image-20200327104026-47.png]]| |[[image:image-20200327104026-49.png]]
18 -|Peak**//-smoothing algorithm//**| | |[[image:image-20200327104026-52.png]]| |[[image:image-20200327104026-54.png]]|
7 +(% style="width:816px" %)
8 +|(% style="width:284px" %)Analysis type/settings|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %)[[image:1585304282722-904.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:99px" %)[[image:1585304287939-388.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304293078-535.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:100px" %)[[image:1585304298027-412.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304303530-165.png]]
9 +|(% style="width:284px" %)Analysis for load cases|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %)[[image:1585304316868-130.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:99px" %)[[image:1585304325317-999.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304325976-532.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:100px" %)[[image:1585304326683-198.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304335642-255.png]]
10 +|(% style="width:284px" %)Analysis for load combinations|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %)[[image:1585304320572-882.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:99px" %)[[image:1585304324426-152.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304345360-694.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:100px" %)[[image:1585304337095-717.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304348201-717.png]]
11 +|(% style="width:284px" %)Analysis for maximum of  load groups|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %)[[image:1585304322886-289.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:99px" %)[[image:1585304338474-309.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304346672-963.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:100px" %)[[image:1585304343412-989.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304350465-766.png]]
12 +|(% style="width:284px" %)Imperfections|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:99px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:100px" %)[[image:1585304355098-291.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304356971-553.png]]
13 +|(% style="width:284px" %)Second order analysis|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:99px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:100px" %)[[image:1585304366475-455.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304368061-608.png]]
14 +|(% style="width:284px" %)Stability analysis|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:99px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:100px" %)[[image:1585304451552-428.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304456840-851.png]]
15 +|(% style="width:284px" %)Eigenfrequencies|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %)[[image:1585304446676-611.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:99px" %)[[image:1585304448716-182.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304455595-358.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:100px" %)[[image:1585304450524-253.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304452997-875.png]]
16 +|(% style="width:284px" %)Seismic analysis|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:99px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:100px" %)[[image:1585304442660-117.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304445044-144.png]]
17 +|(% style="width:284px" %)Non-linear behavior|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %)[[image:1585304434090-131.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:99px" %)[[image:1585304436010-650.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304425716-631.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:100px" %)[[image:1585304429309-891.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304427706-966.png]]
18 +|(% style="width:284px" %)Cracked-section analysis|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %)[[image:1585304432576-696.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:99px" %)[[image:1585304430965-519.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304423428-601.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:100px" %)[[image:1585304419438-855.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304421638-598.png]]
19 +|(% style="width:284px" %)Peak**//-smoothing algorithm//**|(% style="text-align:center; width:116px" %)[[image:1585304384420-951.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:99px" %)[[image:1585304385724-492.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304386991-527.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:100px" %)[[image:1585304388291-423.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:107px" %)[[image:1585304390530-213.png]]
19 19  
20 20  Table: Analysis features by FEM-Design Modules
21 21  
22 -Analysis can be done independently from any design calculations by entering to tabmenu and clicking //Calculate// command, or together with designs (RC, Steel or Timber) with the same command.
23 +Analysis can be done independently from any design calculations by entering to [[image:1585304470015-166.png]] tabmenu and clicking [[image:1585304477784-655.png]] //Calculate// command, or together with designs (RC, Steel or Timber) with the same command.
23 23  
25 +[[image:1585304484190-908.png]]
24 24  
25 -
26 -
27 -
28 28  Figure: Analysis calculations
29 29  
30 30  Analysis settings contain general and calculation-dependent settings. This chapter summarizes these settings and their effect on the result. Clicking //OK// runs Analysis according to the settings and selected calculation types. Other chapters introduce the display of results and their documentation (such as listing results in tables).
31 31  
32 -=== General Analysis Settings ===
31 += General Analysis Settings =
33 33  
34 -==== Finite Element Types ====
33 +== Finite Element Types ==
35 35  
36 36  In the 3D modules, you can choose between “standard” and “accurate” 2D element types. With standard elements you can run 4-times faster but less accurate analysis than with the fine elements.
37 37  
38 -==== Peak Smoothing ====
37 +== Peak Smoothing ==
39 39  
40 40  To solve singularity problem in analysis results (internal forces), it is not enough to create peak smoothing regions in the finite element mesh. The use of the peak smoothing algorithm in the calculations have to be allowed. Without that permission, peak smoothing regions cause only mesh refinements (densifications) around objects.
41 41  
41 +[[image:1585304517715-300.png]]
42 42  
43 43  Figure: Peak smoothing algorithm for Analysis
44 44  
45 45  ==== Setup calculation by load combinations ====
46 46  
47 -The calculation of the load combinations can be run with different options. They can be set in Calculations dialog by selecting the Load combination items and clicking [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image005.png||alt="figure_leftMOUSE"]] on //Setup by load combinations//.
47 +The calculation of the load combinations can be run with different options. They can be set in Calculations dialog by selecting the Load combination items and clicking [[image:1585304536084-353.png]] on //Setup by load combinations//.
48 48  
49 -[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image006.png]]
49 +[[image:1585304541411-585.png]]
50 50  
51 51  The User has the opportunity to choose
52 52  
... ... @@ -60,37 +60,35 @@
60 60  
61 61  for each Load combinations.
62 62  
63 -[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image007.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] For example, in practice it can be useful to set 2^^nd^^ order analysis only for the ULS and Cracked-section analysis only for the SLS combinations.
63 +|(% style="width:89px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1401px" %)For example, in practice it can be useful to set 2^^nd^^ order analysis only for the ULS and Cracked-section analysis only for the SLS combinations.
64 64  
65 -The above mentioned calculation types are described in details below.
65 +=== **Non-Linear Behavior** ===
66 66  
67 -
68 -**Non-Linear Behavior**
69 -
70 70  Non-linear behavior of supports (e.g. uplift), connections and truss members (e.g. tension-only) can be considered in analysis calculations (for load-combinations, imperfections and stability) by ticking //NL// checkbox at //Calculations > Analysis > Load combinations > Setup load combinations//.
71 71  
72 -**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image007.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **“Uplift” can be modeled both in 2D and 3D design modules by defining compression-only //support/connection// (tension = 0 (free)) and by selecting non-linear calculation for a load combination.
69 +|(% style="width:89px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1401px" %)“Uplift” can be modeled both in 2D and 3D design modules by defining compression-only //support/connection// (tension = 0 (free)) and by selecting non-linear calculation for a load combination.
73 73  
74 74  There is a possibility for the user to set the maximum iteration number of nonlinear calculation in //Non-linear calculations //tab in// Setup load combination calculation// dialog.
75 75  
73 +[[image:1585304645669-954.png]]
76 76  
77 -**Plastic Analysis                             **
75 +=== **Plastic Analysis                             ** ===
78 78  
79 79  In FEM-Design 3D Structure there is a plastic calculation option by the setup of load combinations.
80 80  
81 81  Plastic calculation is available for trusses, supports and connections and edge connections of all shell elements (Plane plate and wall, Profiled plate and wall, Timber plate and wall, Fictitious shell).
82 82  
83 -[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png]]
81 +[[image:1585304663813-715.png]]
84 84  
85 85  The options above are considered only for load combinations calculated as non-linear elastic. //Plastic //behaviour is considered for load combinations calculated as non-linear elastic + plastic. See more details in the next chapter.
86 86  
87 87  For further information check the [[documentation>>url:http://download.strusoft.com/FEM-Design/inst170x/documents/diaphragm_and_plastic_theory.pdf]].
88 88  
89 -**Cracked-Section Analysis**
87 +=== **Cracked-Section Analysis** ===
90 90  
91 91  Cracked-section analysis means that the displacement of RC plates, walls, columns and beams can be calculated based on their cracked state and designed reinforcement.
92 92  
93 -[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image010.png||alt="anal_crack.png"]]
91 +[[image:1585304697014-172.png]]
94 94  
95 95  Figure: Iteration steps of cracked-section analysis
96 96  
... ... @@ -98,33 +98,33 @@
98 98  
99 99  The iteration process settings available at //Analysis > Calculations > Load combinations// > //Non-linear calculations//:
100 100  
99 +(% style="text-align:center" %)
100 +[[image:1585304708665-594.png]]
101 101  
102 102  * **One load step in % of the total load** (= number of load steps):
103 -
104 104  For example, 20% means 5 load steps (= 100/20[%]). Less percentage generates more steps and more running time.
105 -
106 106  * **Maximum iteration number:**
107 -
108 108  The value must be in range 1 and 100.
109 -
110 110  * **Allowed displacement error [%]:**
111 -
112 112  Iteration ends, when the relative displacement error becomes less than the allowed value.
113 113  
114 -**Second Order Analysis**
109 +=== **Second Order Analysis** ===
115 115  
116 -In the [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image011.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]] and [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image012.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]] modules, 2^^nd^^ order theory can be applied for load combination calculations of 3D structures. The 2^^nd^^ order analysis considers the placement of the loads that changes together with the displacement, so it results additional moments derived from the new load positions.
111 +In the [[image:1585304738723-114.png]] and [[image:1585304744269-673.png]] modules, 2^^nd^^ order theory can be applied for load combination calculations of 3D structures. The 2^^nd^^ order analysis considers the placement of the loads that changes together with the displacement, so it results additional moments derived from the new load positions.
117 117  
118 118  To allow the 2^^nd^^ order analysis for load combinations, just tick the //2ND// checkbox at //Calculations > Analysis > Load combinations > Setup load combinations// //>// //By load combinations//
119 119  
120 -**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image007.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **The 2^^nd^^ order analysis is recommended to be done together with imperfection calculation. In //Setup load combinations// dialog, choose load combinations which you would like to apply the 2^^nd^^ order theory for, and give the number of imperfection shape (simultaneous or previous calculation for imperfection is needed) you would like to consider for the 2^^nd^^ order analysis.
115 +|(% style="width:89px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1401px" %)(((
116 +The 2^^nd^^ order analysis is recommended to be done together with imperfection calculation. In //Setup load combinations// dialog, choose load combinations which you would like to apply the 2^^nd^^ order theory for, and give the number of imperfection shape (simultaneous or previous calculation for imperfection is needed) you would like to consider for the 2^^nd^^ order analysis.
121 121  
122 -[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image013.png]]
118 +[[image:1585304779623-853.png]]
119 +)))
123 123  
124 -**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image014.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **If the loads are too large when using second order analysis, the program stops the calculations with an error message.
125 125  
126 -==== Diaphragm calculation ====
122 +|(% style="width:113px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1377px" %)If the loads are too large when using second order analysis, the program stops the calculations with an error message.
127 127  
124 +== Diaphragm calculation ==
125 +
128 128  If at least onw diaphragm is defined int he stucture, User can choose one of the following diaphragm calculation options:
129 129  
130 130  * None
... ... @@ -133,26 +133,23 @@
133 133  
134 134  The difference between them is demonstrated by the following pictures. See details in the [[documentation>>url:http://download.strusoft.com/FEM-Design/inst170x/documents/diaphragm_and_plastic_theory.pdf]].
135 135  
136 -[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image015.png]]
134 +[[image:1585304848899-842.png]]
137 137  
138 -=== Analysis for Construction stages ===
136 += Analysis for Construction stages =
139 139  
140 140  User can start the construction stage calculation at Analysis/Calculation/Construction stages. There is two calculation method, so called //Incremental “Tracking” method// and //“Ghost” structure method.//
141 141  
142 -
143 -
144 144  When incremental method is chosen, the model is built stage-by-stage. In case of “ghost” structure method the full structure is in the calculation, but stiffness of those structural parts which aren’t in the specific stage is highly reduced.
145 145  
142 +(% style="color: rgb(231, 76, 60); font-size: 36px" %)**PICTURE MISSING**
146 146  
147 147  //Incremental “Tracking” method//
148 148  
149 -[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image017.png]]
146 +(% style="color: rgb(231, 76, 60); font-size: 36px" %)**PICTURE MISSING**
150 150  
151 -
152 -
153 153  //“Ghost” structure method//
154 154  
155 -[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image018.png]]
150 +[[image:1585304895405-781.png]]
156 156  
157 157  
158 158  === Analysis for Load Cases and Combinations ===
... ... @@ -159,55 +159,113 @@
159 159  
160 160  Analysis calculations can be done by load case and/or load combination. The next table summarizes the results available for load cases and load combinations by FEM-Design modules.
161 161  
157 +[[image:1585304949928-797.png]]
162 162  
163 163  Figure: Starting analysis for load cases and/or load combinations
164 164  
165 -|Analysis result|**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]]**|**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image004.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]]**|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image005.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]]|**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image006.png||alt="icon_FRAMEMODULE"]]**|**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image007.png||alt="icon_3DSTRU"]]**|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]]
166 -|**//Translational displacements//**|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Plate/Beam)|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Wall)|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Wall)|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Wall/Column)
167 -|**//Rotational displacements//**|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Plate/Beam)|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Wall)|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Wall)|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Wall/Column)
168 -|**//Reactions//**|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]
169 -|**//Connection forces//**|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]
170 -|**//Bar internal forces//**|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Beam)| | |[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Column)
171 -|**//Shell internal forces//**|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Plate)|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Wall)|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Wall)|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Wall)
172 -|**//Bar stresses//**|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Beam)| | |[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Column)
173 -|**//Shell stresses//**|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Plate)|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Wall)|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Wall)|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]]|[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.png||alt="MCj04421530000[1]"]] (Wall)
161 +(% style="width:832px" %)
162 +|(% style="width:258px" %)Analysis result|(% style="text-align:center; width:140px" %)[[image:1585304956671-742.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)[[image:1585304961773-996.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)[[image:1585304967386-132.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:106px" %)[[image:1585304972170-610.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)[[image:1585304976957-116.png]]
163 +|(% style="width:258px" %)**//Translational displacements//**|(% style="text-align:center; width:140px" %)(((
164 +[[image:1585304993442-804.png]]
174 174  
166 +(Plate/Beam)
167 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)(((
168 +[[image:1585305071358-191.png]]
169 +
170 +(Wall)
171 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)(((
172 +[[image:1585305065486-862.png]]
173 +
174 +(Wall)
175 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:106px" %)[[image:1585305037909-452.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)[[image:1585305034474-161.png]]
176 +|(% style="width:258px" %)**//Rotational displacements//**|(% style="text-align:center; width:140px" %)(((
177 +[[image:1585304995179-133.png]]
178 +
179 +(Plate/Beam)
180 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)(((
181 +[[image:1585305057106-892.png]]
182 +
183 +(Wall)
184 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)(((
185 +[[image:1585305040089-504.png]]
186 +
187 +(Wall)
188 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:106px" %)[[image:1585305076183-264.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)[[image:1585305036411-105.png]]
189 +|(% style="width:258px" %)**//Reactions//**|(% style="text-align:center; width:140px" %)[[image:1585304997147-692.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)[[image:1585305006797-464.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)[[image:1585305051638-172.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:106px" %)[[image:1585305041630-253.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)[[image:1585305080279-798.png]]
190 +|(% style="width:258px" %)**//Connection forces//**|(% style="text-align:center; width:140px" %)[[image:1585304999104-698.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)[[image:1585305005051-656.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)[[image:1585305048862-251.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:106px" %)[[image:1585305043262-421.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)[[image:1585305122539-422.png]]
191 +|(% style="width:258px" %)**//Bar internal forces//**|(% style="text-align:center; width:140px" %)(((
192 +[[image:1585305000780-455.png]]
193 +
194 +(Beam)
195 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:106px" %)[[image:1585305053297-144.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)[[image:1585305119823-907.png]]
196 +|(% style="width:258px" %)**//Shell internal forces//**|(% style="text-align:center; width:140px" %)(((
197 +[[image:1585305002389-571.png]]
198 +
199 +(Plate)
200 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)(((
201 +[[image:1585305045794-448.png]]
202 +
203 +(Wall)
204 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)(((
205 +[[image:1585305047435-734.png]]
206 +
207 +(Wall)
208 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:106px" %)[[image:1585305116143-730.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)[[image:1585305117975-737.png]]
209 +|(% style="width:258px" %)**//Bar stresses//**|(% style="text-align:center; width:140px" %)(((
210 +[[image:1585305044592-979.png]]
211 +
212 +(Beam)
213 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %) |(% style="text-align:center; width:106px" %)[[image:1585305111733-251.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)[[image:1585305108274-532.png]]
214 +|(% style="width:258px" %)**//Shell stresses//**|(% style="text-align:center; width:140px" %)(((
215 +[[image:1585305090155-201.png]]
216 +
217 +(Plate)
218 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:119px" %)(((
219 +[[image:1585305096784-416.png]]
220 +
221 +(Wall)
222 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)(((
223 +[[image:1585305100225-317.png]]
224 +
225 +(Wall)
226 +)))|(% style="text-align:center; width:106px" %)[[image:1585305103689-525.png]]|(% style="text-align:center; width:103px" %)[[image:1585305106070-791.png]]
227 +
175 175  Table: Basic analysis results by FEM-Design Modules
176 176  
177 -==== Displacements ====
230 +== Displacements ==
178 178  
179 179  Depending on the current FEM-Design module, the program calculates and displays the model displacement from linear or non-linear (for RC elements: (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**cracked-section analysis**(%%)) analysis. There are two types of displacement results: translational or rotational. For bar elements, the motion and rotation components can be displayed separately ((% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Detailed result**(%%)) by direction ((% class="wikiinternallink" %)**local axis**(%%)).
180 180  
181 -**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image010.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **In [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]] //Plate//, the displacements are calculated for the plate regions and beam elements, and the motion is parallel with the global Z direction, so perpendicular to the plate regions. Only reactions can be asked for columns (point reaction) and walls (line reaction).
234 +|(% style="width:117px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1373px" %)(((
235 +In [[image:1585305276609-780.png]] //Plate//, the displacements are calculated for the plate regions and beam elements, and the motion is parallel with the global Z direction, so perpendicular to the plate regions. Only reactions can be asked for columns (point reaction) and walls (line reaction).
182 182  
183 -In [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image004.png||alt="icon_WALLMODULE"]] //Wall// and [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image005.png||alt="icon_PLANESTRAIN"]] //Plane Strain//, the motion is parallel with the calculation plane of the wall regions.
237 +In [[image:1585305282360-591.png]] //Wall// and [[image:1585305288140-326.png]] //Plane Strain//, the motion is parallel with the calculation plane of the wall regions.
238 +)))
184 184  
185 -In [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.png||alt="icon_PREDESIGNMODULE"]] //PreDesign//, although the 3D model contains all types of elements, displacements are calculated for the vertical elements such as columns and walls.
186 186  
187 -**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image011.wmz||alt="MCj02990090000%5b1%5d"]] **Displacement results are recommended to be asked for (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**serviceability load combinations**.
241 +|(% style="width:105px" %)[[image:light.png]]|(% style="width:1385px" %)Displacement results are recommended to be asked for (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**serviceability load combinations**.
188 188  
189 189  ==== Reactions ====
190 190  
191 191  Depending on the support types, the program calculates the reaction forces and/or moments in the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**supports**(%%) by direction component, their resultants and the resultant at the support’s center of gravity of line and surface supports.
192 192  
193 -**[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image010.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **The [[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.png||alt="icon_PLATEMODULE"]] //Plate// module calculates reactions in columns and walls too above the point/line and surface supports.
247 +|(% style="width:117px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1373px" %)(((
248 +The [[image:1585305276609-780.png]] //Plate// module calculates reactions in columns and walls too above the point/line and surface supports.
249 +)))
194 194  
195 195  The available result components:
196 196  
197 -// Fx’ /// //Fy’ /// //Fz’//                                            - reaction force in the local x’/y’/z’ axis of the support ((% class="wikiinternallink" %)**group**(%%));
253 +|//Fx’ /// //Fy’ /// //Fz’//    |Reaction force in the local x’/y’/z’ axis of the support ((% class="wikiinternallink" %)**group**(%%));
254 +|//Fr//|Resultant of the reaction force components (//support group//);
255 +|//F//|Reaction force of the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**single support**(%%);
256 +|//Mx’ /// //My’ / Mz’//|Reaction moment around the local x’/y’/z’ axis of the support (//group//);
257 +|//Mr//|Resultant of the reaction moment components (//support group//);
258 +|//M//|Reaction moment of the //single support//.
198 198  
199 -// Fr//                                                                                                                             - resultant of the reaction force components (//support group//);
260 +== Connection Forces ==
200 200  
201 -// F//                                                                                                                                                            - reaction force of the (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**single support**(%%);
262 +(% style="color: rgb(192, 57, 43); font-size: 36px" %)**-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- CONTINUE WORK HERE -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-**
202 202  
203 -// Mx’ /// //My’ / Mz’//          - reaction moment around the local x’/y’/z’ axis of the support (//group//);
204 -
205 -// Mr//                                                                                                                           - resultant of the reaction moment components (//support group//);
206 -
207 -// M//                                                                                                                             - reaction moment of the //single support//.
208 -
209 -==== Connection Forces ====
210 -
211 211  Similarly to reactions, the program calculates the forces and/or moments in the connection objects ((% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Edge connection**(%%), (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Point-point connection**(%%) and/or (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**Line-line connection**(%%)) by direction component and their resultants.
212 212  
213 213  The available result components:
... ... @@ -661,7 +661,7 @@
661 661  
662 662  **[[image:file:///C:/Users/Fredrik/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image010.wmz||alt="MCj04113200000%5b1%5d"]] **Dynamic calculation requires (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**masses**(%%) to be predefined.
663 663  
664 -[[(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Seismic analysis**>>path:#_Seismic_Analysis]](%%) needs the eigenfrequencies calculations.
717 +[[(% class="wikiinternallink wikiinternallink wikiinternallink" %)**Seismic analysis**>>path:#_Seismic_Analysis]](%%) needs the eigenfrequencies calculations.
665 665  
666 666  In Calculation / Eigenfrequencies dialog the user can set the level of top of the substructure. The masses will be neglected __at__ and __under__ this level.
667 667  
... ... @@ -743,7 +743,7 @@
743 743  [[image:1585303002015-960.png]]
744 744  Figure: Settings of seismic analysis
745 745  
746 -*
799 +*
747 747  
748 748  **Static, linear shape**
749 749  
... ... @@ -756,9 +756,8 @@
756 756  
757 757  |(% style="width:107px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1383px" %)This method is unusable, if the whole foundation is not in same plane or the horizontal foundation is elastic. In these cases, //Static, mode shape// or //Modal analysis// should be used.
758 758  
759 -
760 760  
761 -*
813 +*
762 762  
763 763  **Static, mode shape**
764 764  In this method the distribution of “base shear force” happens according to fundamental mode shapes (base vibration shapes).
... ... @@ -775,9 +775,8 @@
775 775  
776 776  |(% style="width:107px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1383px" %)The calculation of “base shear force” is performed according to the total mass of the structure and not to the effective mass.
777 777  
778 -
779 779  
780 -*
831 +*
781 781  
782 782  **Modal analysis**
783 783  [[image:1585303301268-646.png]]
... ... @@ -796,11 +796,10 @@
796 796  The mode shapes which have small effective mass may be neglected, because their effect in result is very small, but calculation time increases.
797 797  )))
798 798  
799 -
800 800  
801 -*
851 +*
802 802  
803 -​​​​​​​​​​​​​​**Summation rule by directions**
853 +**Summation rule by directions**
804 804  According to the //EC8//, the summation rule in the individual directions can be selected. In all other codes always the //SRSS// rule is used for summation (there is no choice). Read more about //SRSS// and //CQC// summation rules in //Theory book//. If the //Automatic// is selected, the rule selection procedure is as follow:
805 805  
806 806  (% style="width:843px" %)
... ... @@ -840,13 +840,12 @@
840 840  It is uninterested in the calculation point of view, that effective masses are compared to the total or the reduced mass, because these values are given in percentage and only gives information, that which mode shape is the fundamental or which shapes are dominant in a given direction.
841 841  )))
842 842  
843 -*
893 +*
844 844  
845 845  At //Options//, more calculation properties can be set:
846 846  
847 -*
897 +*
848 848  
849 -
850 850  
851 851  **Combination rule**
852 852  The combination rule of effects in the //x'//, //y'// and maybe //z// directions can be set here. You can choose from two possibilities.
... ... @@ -857,7 +857,7 @@
857 857  
858 858  |(% style="width:107px" %)[[image:warning.png]]|(% style="width:1383px" %)The calculation of both effects needs the definition of (% class="wikiinternallink" %)**storeys**(%%).
859 859  )))
860 -1. ​​​​​​​**Seismic calculation**
909 +1. **Seismic calculation**
861 861  After choosing a calculation method and setting its properties, activate first //Seismic analysis// under //Analysis// and then press //OK//.
862 862  
863 863  == The Results ==
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