# Changes for page Concrete Design

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 ... ... @@ -1,10 +1,20 @@ 1 1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}} 2 -{{toc /}} 2 +{{toc/}} 3 3 {{/box}} 4 4 5 5 (% style="text-align: justify;" %) 6 -FEM-Design performs design calculations for reinforced concrete-, steel- and timber structures according to Eurocode. The following design considers EC2 (standard) and the National Annex (NA) for Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Norway, Sweden, Poland and United Kingdom. 6 +FEM-Design performs design calculations for reinforced concrete-, steel- and timber structures according to Eurocode. The following design considers EC1992-1-1 (standard) with the following National Annexes (NA) for: 7 7 8 +* Denmark 9 +* Estonia 10 +* Finland 11 +* Germany 12 +* Hungary 13 +* Norway 14 +* Poland 15 +* Romania 16 +* Sweden 17 +* United Kingdom. 8 8 9 9 = {{id name="Design forces"/}}{{id name="Design forces"/}}Design forces = 10 10 ... ... @@ -102,7 +102,7 @@ 102 102 [[image:1543504296967-109.png||height="60" width="122"]] 103 103 104 104 (% style="text-align: justify;" %) 105 -where: 115 +where: 106 106 107 107 (% style="text-align: justify;" %) 108 108 n = E,,s,, / E,,c ,,and S,,s,, is the statical moment of (here) X-directional bars around the Y axis of the calculation plane. ... ... @@ -170,7 +170,7 @@ 170 170 (% class="mark" %)VSd < VRd1(%%) 171 171 172 172 173 -where: 183 +where: 174 174 175 175 V,,Sd,, is the design shear force; 176 176 ... ... @@ -200,7 +200,7 @@ 200 200 **Punching with shear reinforcement** 201 201 202 202 (% style="text-align: justify;" %) 203 -A concrete compression check on **u,,0,,** is made according to 6.4.5 (6.53). Reinforcement is calculated with regard to critical perimeters u,,1,,, u,,2,,, ... u,,nReinf ,,according to 6.4.5 (6.52 ). 213 +A concrete compression check on **u,,0,,** is made according to 6.4.5 (6.53). Reinforcement is calculated with regard to critical perimeters u,,1,,, u,,2,,, ... u,,nReinf  ,,according to 6.4.5 (6.52 ). 204 204 205 205 (% style="text-align: justify;" %) 206 206 (u,,i,, are control perimeters above the reinforced region, distance between them is ”Perimeter distance”, defined in the calculation parameter). ... ... @@ -210,7 +210,7 @@ 210 210 A concrete shear check on **u,,out,,** is made for a capacity calculated according to 6.4.4 (6.47) 211 211 212 212 (% style="text-align: justify;" %) 213 -(**u,,out,,** is either the first perimeter that does not need reinforcement, or if it is not found, the perimeter that is** k d,,eff,,** distance from the outer perimeter of the reinforcement). 223 +(**u,,out,,** is either the first perimeter that does not need reinforcement, or if it is not found, the perimeter that is** k d,,eff,,** distance from the outer perimeter of the reinforcement). 214 214 215 215 216 216 (% style="text-align: justify;" %) ... ... @@ -286,7 +286,7 @@ 286 286 287 287 **σ,,s,, **is the stress in the tension reinforcement assuming a cracked section. For pretensioned members, σ,,s,, may be replaced by Δσ,,p,, the stress variation in prestressing tendons from the state of zero strain of the concrete at the same level, 288 288 289 -**α,,e,,**= is the ratio** Es / Ecm** 299 +**α,,e,,**= is the ratio** Es / Ecm** 290 290 291 291 **A,,p,,** and **A,,c,eff,,** are as defined in (% style="color:#e74c3c" %)7.3.2 (3)(%%), 292 292 ... ... @@ -326,7 +326,7 @@ 326 326 **k,,1,,** is a coefficient which takes account of the bond properties of the bonded reinforcement: 327 327 328 328 329 -**k,,1,,** =** 0,8 **for high bond bars, 339 +**k,,1,,** =** 0,8 **for high bond bars, 330 330 331 331 **k,,1,,** **= 1,6** for bars with an effectively plain surface (e.g. prestressing tendons), 332 332 ... ... @@ -407,7 +407,7 @@ 407 407 **M** is current moment. 408 408 409 409 410 -Curvature with respect to shrinkage is considered according to(% style="color:#e74c3c" %) 2.2.2(%%) above. 420 +Curvature with respect to shrinkage is considered according to(% style="color:#e74c3c" %) 2.2.2(%%) above. 411 411 412 412 413 413 (% style="text-align: justify;" %) ... ... @@ -572,7 +572,7 @@ 572 572 [[image:1557398781245-600.png||height="193" width="441"]] 573 573 574 574 (% style="text-align: justify;" %) 575 -The required cross-sectional area of the longitudinal reinforcement for torsion** ΣA,,sl,,** may be calculated from: 585 +The required cross-sectional area of the longitudinal reinforcement for torsion** ΣA,,sl,,** may be calculated from: 576 576 577 577 [[image:1557398836470-691.png||height="46" width="203"]] 578 578 ... ... @@ -695,11 +695,9 @@ 695 695 * **Minimum distance:** 696 696 The clear distance (horizontal and vertical) between individual parallel bars or horizontal layers of parallel bars should be not less than the maximum of k,,1,, bar diameter, (d,,g,, + k,,2,, mm) or 20 mm where d,,g,, is the maximum size of aggregate. 697 697 698 - 699 699 * **Maximum distance:** 700 700 The longitudinal bars should be so arranged that there is at least one bar at each corner, the others being distributed uniformly around the inner periphery of the links, with a spacing not greater than 350 mm. 701 701 702 - 703 703 **Lengthening and anchorage** 704 704 705 705 * **Because of shear effect (//shift rule//):** ... ... @@ -757,7 +757,6 @@ 757 757 l,,b,min,, > max (0,6 l,,b,rqd,,; 10 φ; 100 mm), 758 758 Rule given for compression is used. 759 759 760 - 761 761 == Stirrups == 762 762 763 763 === Shear === ... ... @@ -794,7 +794,7 @@ 794 794 [[image:1557404308626-814.png||height="80" width="280"]] 795 795 796 796 (% style="text-align: justify;" %) 797 -**A,,sl,,** is the area of the tensile reinforcement, which extends: ≥ (**l,,bd,,** +** d**) beyond the section aonsidered (see Figure 6.3), **b,,w,,** is the smallest width of the cross-section in the tensile area [mm], 804 +**A,,sl,,** is the area of the tensile reinforcement, which extends: ≥ (**l,,bd,,** +** d**) beyond the section aonsidered (see Figure 6.3), **b,,w,,** is the smallest width of the cross-section in the tensile area [mm], 798 798 799 799 σ,,cp,, = N,,Ed,, / A,,c,, < 0,2 f,,cd,, [MPa], 800 800 ... ... @@ -805,7 +805,7 @@ 805 805 **V,,Rd,c,,**,, ,,is [N] 806 806 807 807 (% style="text-align: justify;" %) 808 -The recommended value for **C,,Rd,c,,** is **0,18 / γ,,c,,**, that for** v,,min,,** is given by the expression below and that for **k,,1,,** is **0,15**. 815 +The recommended value for **C,,Rd,c,,** is **0,18 / γ,,c,,**, that for** v,,min,,** is given by the expression below and that for **k,,1,,** is **0,15**. 809 809 810 810 [[image:1557404927126-189.png||height="24" width="136"]] 811 811